કોડાયકેનલ

વિકિપીડિયાથી
આના પર જાવ: ભ્રમણ, શોધો
Kodaikanal
—  city  —
Anna Salai, a business street in Kodaikanal
Kodaikanalનુ
તમિલનાડુ અને ભારતમાં સ્થાન
અક્ષાંશ-રેખાંશ ૧૦°૧૪′૦૬″N ૭૭°૨૯′૧૦″E / ૧૦.૨૩૫°N ૭૭.૪૮૬°E / 10.235; 77.486
દેશ ભારત
રાજ્ય તમિલનાડુ
જિલ્લો Dindigul
સ્થાપના 1845 [૧]
નજીકના શહેર(ઓ) Madurai ૧૨૧ કિ.મી (૭૫ મા)
Chairman S. Mohamed Ibrahim
Vice Chairman Thiru.P.Chelladurai
વસ્તી

• ગીચતા

૩૨,૯૩૧ (2001)

• ૧,૧૦૦ /km2 (૨,૮૪૯ /sq mi)

જાતિ પ્રમાણ /
સાક્ષરતા .% 
અધિકૃત ભાષા(ઓ) તમિલ[૩]
સમય ક્ષેત્ર આઇએસટી (+૦૫:૩૦)
વિસ્તાર

• ઉંચાઇ

૨૧.૪૫ ચોરસ કિલોમીટર (૮.૨૮ ચો માઈલ)

• ૨,૧૩૩ મીટર (૬,૯૯૮ ફુ)

આબોહવા

• વરસાદ
તાપમાન
• ઉનાળો
• શિયાળો


     ૧,૬૫૦ મિ.મી (૬૫ ઇં)

     ૧૯.૮ °સે (૬૭.૬ °ફૅ)
     ૮.૩ °સે (૪૬.૯ °ફૅ)

Kodaikanal (તમિલ: கொடைக்கானல்) is a city[૨] in the hills of the taluk division of the Dindigul district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Its name in the Tamil language means "The Gift of the Forest".[૩] Kodaikanal is referred as the "Princess of Hill stations" and has a long history as a retreat and popular tourist destination. It's a lot cooler in temperature than lower elevation cities such as Chennai.

Kodaikanal was established in 1845 as a refuge from the high temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains.[૪] Much of the local economy is based on the hospitality industry serving tourism.

Etymology[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Section OR

It is not known who first used this name or what they intended it to mean.

However the following explanation makes some sense. By pronouncing with long Tamil 'O' as ko...dai means the summer and kanal means to see, which means a place to see in Summer. Kodaikanal is actually a summer forest.

The other interesting explanations are, the Tamil language, has four versions are defined to the name "Kodaikanal". It is interesting but it is not known who invented this name. The word Kodaikanal is classified into two words as Kodai and Kanal. Here "Kanal" means in Tamil that the dense forest or the closed forest. Then "Kodai" has four different meanings. With its meanings Kodaikanal meant in four ways. By pronouncing with long Tamil 'O' and KO....DI means "the end". So that KO...DI KANAL means "The End of the Forest" in the bygone days, Kodaikanal is situated at the end part of the thick forest. Nowadays it is developed but the beauty is still kept.[૩]

By pronouncing with short Tamil 'O' as KODI means "The Creepers". So that Kodaikanal means "The Forest of Creepers". "The Forest of Creepers" is also thought to be the English language meaning given in 1885 during the early western habitation of the place,[૫] and is still accepted.[૬] They called like this with its beauty.

By pronouncing with long Tamil 'O' as KO....DAI means "The Summer". So KO...DAI KANAL means "The Forest of the Summer". Kodaikanal is actually a summer forest. By pronouncing with short Tamil 'O' as KODAI means that "The Gift". So that "Kodaikanal" means "The Gift of the Forest" Kodaikanal was created by the forest and it surroundings. So it may be called as the gift of forest.[૩]

By pronouncing with short Tamil 'O' as KODAI means that "The Gift". So that "Kodaikanal" means "The Gift of the Forest" Kodaikanal was created by the forest and it surroundings. So it may be called as the gift of forest.[૩] Another Tamil word for creepers is Valli, the honey collecting daughter of the chief of the Veddas mountain tribe. The chief and his wife prayed to the Mountain God for a girl-child and their prayers were answered when the chief found a new-born girl child during a hunting expedition. As she was found among creeper plants, they named the child Valli and she grew up as princess of the tribe in Kurinji and became the consort of lord Murugan. [૭] The romantic traditions of Murugan in Sangam literature are thus associated with the name Kodaikanal.

History[ફેરફાર કરો]

The earliest residents of Kodaikanal were the Palaiyar tribal people. The earliest specific references to Kodaikanal and the Palani Hills are found in Tamil Sangam literature of the early Christian era.[૮] Modern Kodaikanal was established by American Christian missionaries and British bureaucrats in 1845, as a refuge from the high temperatures and tropical diseases of the plains.[૪] In the 20th century a few elite Indians came to realise the value of this enchanting hill station and started relocating here.[૯]

Tourism has been impacted by industrial pollution issues including the closure of a mercury factory owned by Unilever's Indian subsidiary Hindustan Unilever after evidence of widespread mercury pollution.[૧૦] to date no proper clean-up operation has been mounted.

Geography[ફેરફાર કરો]

1955 Topographic map of Kodaikanal

The town of Kodaikanal sits on a plateau above the southern escarpment of the upper Palni Hills at ૨,૧૩૩ મીટર (૬,૯૯૮ ફુ), between the Parappar and Gundar Valleys. These hills form the eastward spur of the Western Ghats on the Western side of South India. It has an irregular basin as its heartland, the centre of which is now Kodaikanal Lake a ૫ કિલોમીટર (૩.૧ મા) circumference manmade lake.

Meadows and grasslands cover the hillsides. Gigantic Eucalyptus trees and shola forests flourish in the valleys. Mighty rocks and cascading streams. rise up from the valleys. There are many high waterfalls and ubiquitous gardens and flower beds in bloom.[૯]

North of the town, high hills that slope down into the villages of Pallangi and Vilpatti stand guard. On the east the hill slopes less abruptly into the lower Palnis. A precipitous escarpment facing the Cumbum Valley is on the south. On the west is a plateau leading to Manjampatti Valley, Indira Gandhi National Park, the Anamalai Hills and the main body of the Western Ghats.

Economy[ફેરફાર કરો]

Anna Salai, Street bazaar, with Mount Perumalmalai in distance
Season Months
Peak Season April–June
Low Season Feb-March; July–September
Second Season October–January

The economy of Kodaikanal is predominantly run by tourism.[૧૧] The town's infrastructure changes every year in preparation for the peak tourist season. Major roads are converted into one-way lanes to regulate the constant inflow of traffic and special police are brought in for the safety of the tourists and protection of local businesses. Hotels are often fully booked during the high season, and remain virtually empty during the off-season. Due to the rapid development of nearby cities such as Madurai and Coimbatore, the town is starting to enjoy year-round tourism.

There are at least 50 hotels catering to all categories of tourists[૧૨] and over 30 south & north Indian, continental, western and Chinese restaurants, and many more small eateries and tea stalls.

A waterfall enroute Kodaikanal

There are at least seven retail bank branches and five automated teller machines (ATM) in Kodaikanal. The Bank of India has a branch and ATM at S.G.J Thangadurai Building, Anna Salai. The Canara Bank has a branch and ATM at CLS book shop complex, Anna Salai. The Central Bank of India branch is at M M Street, Law's Ghat Road, Perumalmalai. The Indian Bank has a branch and ATM at Anna Salai. The State Bank of India has a branch at Anna Salai and also has an ATM on Lake Road, outside Kodaikanal International School.[૧૩] The Union Bank of India has a branch at Naidupuram and also has an ATM on the 1st Floor of Municipal Shopping Complex opposite the Old Bus Stand, Anna Salai.,.[૧૪][૧૫] ICICI Bank also has an ATM in Kodaikanal.

The Kodaikanal Co-operative Land Development Bank, The Kodaikanal Co-operative Urban Bank at Anna Salai and the Madurai District Central Co-operative Bank at Post Office Road offer only local Commercial banking services.[૧૬] There is an excellent bazaar where residents, local villagers and tourists come buy woollen clothing, flowers, fresh grocery, meat, handicrafts, hot snacks, cheap toys, medicinal herbs and oils, hardware, dry goods and cooking fuels. The cosmopolitan nature of Kodai is evident on Anna Salai, the main business street, where it is common to see local villagers, European and American students and backpackers, foreign retirees and families from other parts of India, all mixed together in their common activity of shopping.

Plums, pears, chile peppers, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, garlic and onions are cultivated by terrace farmers in surrounding villages.[૧૭] Most are trucked to other parts of India and some are sold in the local market. Popular tourist souvenirs include handcrafts, home-made chocolates, postcards and Eucalyptus oil.[૧૧]

Health[ફેરફાર કરો]

The three major medical facilities are the Kodaikanal Health and Medical Services (KHMS), Van Allen Hospital and the Government Hospital. These hospitals treat patients with common ailments and injuries and perform child delivery and care, but are not equipped with modern medical equipment for complicated diagnoses and surgeries.

KHMS is a modern hospital and is well-suited for the basic needs of the people, including child delivery. The local residents and those from the nearby villages, do not have to travel down to the plains, thanks to KHMS. KHMS is an integrated hospital, wherein both modern medicine as well as other forms of medicine are practised, this includes, homeopathy,reflexology, reiki, cold pack treatment, spinal bath, naturopathy, murma (diagnosis through the pulse). KHMS offers x-ray (radiology); sonography (ultrasound); pathology laboratory, pharmacy, OT, OPD. KHMS has a modern dental clinic as well.

In April 1915, Dr. Van Allen raised funds to construct the first unit of the hospital at the entrance of Coaker's walk. It was named after him. Facilities got updated from time to time and now it has X-ray machine, well equipped pathological lab, and operation theatre with blood transfusion facilities.

Government Hospital is situated on the hillside near Rock cottage on lower shola road. It was a small municipal hospital until 1927. Now it has X-ray, Dental, Maternity ward and other facilities.[૧૮]

Air and water-borne mercury emissions have contaminated large areas of Kodaikanal and surrounding forests. A study conducted by the Department of Atomic Energy confirmed that Kodaikanal Lake has been contaminated by mercury emissions.,[૧૯][૨૦]

Education[ફેરફાર કરો]

Kodaikanal is renowned for the Kodaikanal International School, Zion Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Brindavan Public School, St.Peter's Matriculation Higher Secondary School [૨૧] and the Kodaikanal Public School [૨૨] The other schools are: Bhavan's Gandhi Vidyashram, Brindavan Matric Higher secondary School, St. Joseph's Public School , St. Xavier's High School and St. John's Girls Higher Secondary School.

The main colleges here are (American University of India (AUI) / Kodai International Business School (KIBS) www.auiedu.com) which is an elite Business school offering MBA & BBA programs in USA & India located in Ugarthenager, Kodaikanal Christian College, and Sacred Heart College. Mother Theresas University is distinctive as India's only university devoted to exclusively women's issues.[૨૩] [૨૪][૨૫] In 2005 a new engineering college specializing in Information Technology, Kodaikanal Institute of Technology under Anna University, has been established ૨૨ કિલોમીટર (૧૪ મા) below Kodaikanal town. It has a ૨૫ એકર (૧૦ હે.) Wireless networked campus including of state-of-art Laboratories, Digital Library & Learning Management System, 24/7 high-speed 8 Mbit/s Internet facility and a Hostel.[૨૬]

Religion[ફેરફાર કરો]

La Salette Church

Since Kodaikanal was founded by the American and European Missionaries, Christian churches are abundant in Kodaikanal. They include Church of South India - opposite Bryant Park, Gorapur, Lake End, La Salette, Lutheran Mission, Sacred Heart - Munjikal, Saint Antony’s - Antonyar Kovil street, Saint Francis Xavier, Saint Joseph's, Saint Mary's and Saint Peter’s - Cockers Walk road. Amongst the most popular is Union Church with a large Tamil congregation and Margaret Eddy Memorial Chapel at Kodai International School with lively services in a typically American style and distinctive stone architecture.

There are many Hindu Temples in Kodaikanal including the Durgai Amman Kovil, Kurinji Andavar Kovil, Mariamman Kovil, Observatory Murugan Kovil and Vinayagar Kovil. The Muslim mosques are Ellis Villa and Munjikal. There is an active community of Tibetan Buddhist refugees.

Civil Society[ફેરફાર કરો]

Kodaikanal Golf Club

Kodaikanal has several clubs and civil society organizations operating for social, charitable and environmental goals. Established clubs in Kodaikanal are the Kodaikanal Lions Club (est. 1985) under the jurisdiction of Lions Clubs International (district 324B); Kodaikanal Boat Club (est. 1890) with nearly 650 permanent members; Kodaikanal Golf Club (est. 1895) with over 600 members and an 18 hole golf course, spread over ૧૪૩ એકર (૦.૫૮ કિ.મી); and The Indian Club (est. 1915) on Poet Thyagarajar road.[૨૭]

In 1890, the Kodaikanal Missionary Union (KMU) was formed to enable missionaries of the various demominations to come together for recreation and to develop mission strategy and outreach in cooperation with each other. In 1923 it built an Edwardian style clubhouse with large central hall for social events and afternoon teas, 6 tennis courts, a reading room, and other spaces for meetings.[૨૮] With the decline of missionary activity in India, the KMU was wound up in the 1980s, and the property was turned over to Kodaikanal International School. The KMU library with many valuable old books besides newer materials, is still functioning in one room, and provides something of a social venue. The valuable original KMU archives materials have been incorporated into the archives of the school, which has hired an archivist and is in process of converting the whole original KMU building into an archives and display center for the school and the community.[૨૯] (2008)

Kodaikanal lake View showing: Mount Perumal, Boat house, Carlton Hotel, Kodaikanal International School, Fish hatchery, Lake Road.

Kodaikanal has several Social service societies which promote local trade and increase employment of rural villagers in the town's periphery by participating in its tourism fueled growth. These include the Kodaikanal People Development Group (KOPDEG) which has been successful in providing employment for marginalized women and marketing their products. The Made-in-India tagged products from Kopedeg are unique to Kodaikanal and are targeted at foreign tourists who regularly buy them as souvenirs.[૩૦]

The Cottage Crafts Shop at Anna Salai, is run by the voluntary organisation, Coordinating Council for Social Concerns in Kodai (CORSOK). They sell goods crafted by development groups and uses the commission charged to help the needy.[૧૧]

In 1994 the "Potter's Shed" was inaugurated. This pottery and craft Shop in Kodaikanal has made and sold hundreds of thousands of fine pieces of locally made pottery. All profits from this business are contributed to the Bethania Kids, Center For Children with Disabilities.[૩૧]

The Kodaikanal Lake Protection Council and Vattakkanal Organization for Youth, Community and Environment (VOYCE) are active in preserving Kodaikanal's environment. Plastic bags are banned and almost all shops and roadside vendors heed the rule and use recycled paper bags in fear of a social reprisal. Local hotels have also participated in improving the environment by placing garbage cans all across the town, with their prominent donated by signs acting as silent salesmen.[૩૨]

Places of interest[ફેરફાર કરો]

Kodaikanal has several scenic natural attractions which are enjoyed by its visitors and make it a popular romantic destination for newlyweds. These are described in order of distance from the bus-stand.

Kodaikanal Lake, ૫૦૦ મીટર (૧,૬૦૦ ફુ) from the bus stand, is an artificial, roughly star-shaped 45 ha (60 acres) lake built in 1863. It is recognized as Kodaikanal's most popular geographic landmark and tourist attraction. Rowboats and pedalos can be hired at the Kodaikanal Boat Club with its main entrance near the only five-star hotel in Kodaikanal, The Carlton. Horses and bicycles can be hired beside the lake for short periods. The ૫ કિલોમીટર (૩.૧ મા) path that skirts the periphery of this lovely lake is a favourite walk for the locals and tourists alike.

Bryant Park: Just east of the lake and ૫૦૦ મીટર (૧,૬૦૦ ફુ) from the bus stand, is a wonderfully maintained ૨૦.૫ એકર (૮.૩ હે.) botanical garden. The park was planned and built in 1908 by a forest officer from Madurai, H.D.Bryant, and named after him. With 325 species of trees, shrubs and cactuses, the park is a rainbow of stunning flowers during the peak season. A large section is dedicated to nearly 740 varieties of roses. There is a 1857 Eucalyptus tree and a Bodhi tree which adds a religious significance to the park. Ornamental plants are cultivated in a nursery for sale. The park organizes horticultural exhibits and flower shows every summer, to coincide with the peak season. Entrance fee to the park is nominal and it is open all year.[૩૩]

Coaker's Walk (1900)

Coaker's Walk, ૫૦૦ મીટર (૧,૬૦૦ ફુ) from the bus-stand, constructed by Lt.Coaker in 1872, is a ૧-કિલોમીટર (૩,૩૦૦ ફુ) paved pedestrian path running along the edge of steep slopes on the southern side of Kodai. The walk, winding around Mount Nebo, starts in front of the Van Allen hospital, running parallel to the Van Allen Hospital Road and joins the main road beside St.Peter's Church, providing a stunning panoramic view of the plains. On a clear day one can view as far as Dolphin's Nose in the south, the valley of the Pambar River in the southeast, Periyakulam town and even the city of Madurai. A fascinating rare phenomenon called Brocken spectre can be witnessed, when a person can see his shadow on the clouds with a rainbow halo. This occurs when the sun is behind the viewer and clouds and mist are to the front. There is an observatory with a telescope halfway along the walk. Entrance fee to the walkway is nominal and it is open all year.[૩૪]

Bear Shola Falls, ૩ કિલોમીટર (૧.૯ મા) from the bus-stand, is a tall waterfall in a Reserve forest. The final approach to this quiet area is a gently climbing foot-path.

Green valley view

Green Valley View, (formerly called Suicide Point) ૫.૫ કિલોમીટર (૩.૪ મા) from the bus-stand and near the golf course, has an excellent panoramic view of the plains and a sheer drop of ૧,૫૦૦ મીટર (૪,૯૦૦ ફુ) overlooking the Vaigai Dam to the south. The stairway leading up to it is highly commercialized and lined with rows of shops to tempt tourists.[૩૫]

Pine forests, In 1906, with a view to growing valuable timber, Mr. Bryant started the Kodaikanal pine plantations in the south-west of Kodaikanal.[૩૬]

Shembaganur Museum of Natural History, ૬ કિલોમીટર (૩.૭ મા) from the bus-stand, founded in 1895, is open to the public (except Tuesdays) for viewing their outstanding taxidermy collection of more than 500 species of animals, birds and insects and a living collection of over 300 exotic orchid species. The museum is affiliated with Loyola College in Chennai and exhibits artifacts of the ancient Palaiyar tribes people whose descendants still live in these hills.[૩૭]

Kodaikanal Solar Observatory, ૬ કિલોમીટર (૩.૭ મા) from the bus-stand on Observatory Road, at ૨,૩૪૩ મીટર (૭,૬૮૭ ફુ) is the highest location near Kodai. The first observations were commenced here in 1901.[૩૮] Former Director John Evershed, discovered the phenomenon of radial motion in sunspots, now known as the Evershed effect. The Kodaikanal Terrestrial Telescope can view a grand panorama including: Sothupparai Dam, Vaigai Dam, Periyakulam and Varaha river. This Indian Institute of Astrophysics facility has a comprehensive Astronomical Science museum with organized public tours, access to the astronomy library, and scheduled night-time telescopic sky viewing. It is open daily to the public during peak season, and a few hours each Friday the rest of the year.[૩૯]

Pillar Rocks

Pillar Rocks, ૮ કિલોમીટર (૫.૦ મા) from the bus-stand, is a set of three giant rock pillars which stand ૧૨૨ મીટર (૪૦૦ ફુ) high.[૪૦] Managed by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, The viewpoint can be crowded but is not commercialized. There is an excellent public garden adjacent to the viewpoint.

Guna caves, made popular by the Tamil movie Guna, previously called Devil’s Kitchen, are deep bat-infested chambers between the three gigantic boulders that are the Pillar Rocks. The deep narrow ravines of the caves are now closed to public due to the tragic deaths of twelve youths there.(સંદર્ભ આપો) These dangerous caves are highly protected now, and tourists can see sections of the cave system from afar.[૪૧]

Silver Cascade, ૮ કિલોમીટર (૫.૦ મા) from Kodaikanal at a wide bend in the long and winding Laws Ghat Road, at altitude ૧,૮૦૦ મીટર (૫,૯૦૦ ફુ), is a ૫૫-મીટર (૧૮૦ ફુ) waterfall formed from the outflow of Kodaikanal Lake.[૪૨] The water quality is reportedly poor and not good enough for bathing.[૪૩] This impressive waterfall is a popular stop for first-time visitors. There are a few souvenir and fruit vendors and many monkeys here. There is also a smaller but more serene waterfall below the bridge which crosses the stream here.

Dolphin's Nose

Dolphin's Nose, ૮ કિલોમીટર (૫.૦ મા) from the bus stand, is flat rock projecting over a breathtaking chasm ૬,૬૦૦ મીટર (૨૧,૭૦૦ ફુ) deep. It is an undisturbed area ૧ કિલોમીટર (૦.૬૨ મા) down a very steep rocky trail beginning soon after Pambar Bridge. Orange juice vendors along the trail offer a welcome rest stop. Beautiful views of steep rocky escarpments rising from the plains can be seen. The old village of Vellagavi can be reached through a rugged bridle path here. A short paved walkway leads from the road here to Pambar falls (which is also locally addressed as 'Liril Falls' after the famous Liril Soap Advertisement filming in 1985).[૪૪]

Kurinji Andavar Murugan temple, ૪ કિલોમીટર (૨.૫ મા) from the bus-stand, is famous for its Kurinji flower which blossoms in the area only once every 12 years. The deity here is called Sri Kurinji Easwaran, who is in fact Lord Murugan. This temple was built in 1936 by a European lady, who on coming to Celon, converted to Hinduism.She changed her name to Leelavathi and married Mr.Ponnambalam Ramanathan. She is also known as Lady Ramanathan. This temple was handed over to Arulmighu Dhandayuthapani Swamy Thiru Kovil, Palani by Mrs Devi Prasad Bhaskaran(also known as Padmini, niece and adopted daughter of Mr S Natesan Pillai, son in-law of Lady Ramanathan) and her husband Dr R. Bhaskaran.

Transport[ફેરફાર કરો]

Almost all distances from Kodaikanal are calculated with the lake as the central point of reference. The nearest airports are Madurai (૧૩૫ કિલોમીટર / ૮૪ માઈલ), Trichy (૨૦૦ કિલોમીટર / ૧૨૦ માઈલ) and Coimbatore (૧૭૦ કિલોમીટર / ૧૧૦ માઈલ). The nearest Railway stations are Palani Railway Station (૬૪ કિલોમીટર / ૪૦ માઈલ) north, Kodai Road Station (૮૦ કિલોમીટર / ૫૦ માઈલ) south east and Dindigul Railway Junction (૧૦૦ કિલોમીટર (૬૨ મા)) east.[૪૫]

The 2 to 3 hours drive to Kodai via the steep and winding Ghat roads from Batlagundu or Palani is a memorable experience. Travelers may stop at turnouts on the road and enjoy the scenic beauty of the Palani hills.[૪૬] There is a 28 km shortcut from Periyakulam to Kodaikanal via Kumbakarai . Bicycle rentals, taxis, vans and limited city buses are available.[૪૭] Auto rickshaws are not available.[૪૮]

Notes[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. Kodaikanal Department Of Municipal Administration And Water Supply, Historical Moments, 2005
  2. city definition: Town#India
  3. ૩.૦ ૩.૧ ૩.૨ ૩.૩ "About City". Government of Tamil Nadu. Kodaikanal Department Of Municipal Administration And Water Supply. Retrieved 23 November 2009. 
  4. ૪.૦ ૪.૧ Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, ch 2, Rational for Tropical Hill Sations, pp13-15, 1972. Original from the University of California Digitized Jan 28, 2008
  5. The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia by Edward Balfour, Published by B. Quaritch, 1885, Item notes: vol.2 H-NYSA, P583, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized Jan 29, 2008
  6. Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, place creepers, p. 98, 1972. Original from the University of California Digitized Jan 28, 2008
  7. Sangam_landscape#Kurinji_.E2.80.93_Mountainous_Region
  8. Mitchell Nora, Indian Hill Station: Kodaikanal, University of Chicago, Dept. of Geography, Kodaikanal Sangam, p97, 1972 Original from the University of California Digitized Jan 28, 2008
  9. ૯.૦ ૯.૧ Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation and Department of Tourism, Kodaikanal Princess of Hill Stations
  10. "Unilever Environmental Pollution". Corporate Watch. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  11. ૧૧.૦ ૧૧.૧ ૧૧.૨ kodaikanal.com, Kodaikanal - Shopping
  12. www.kodaikanal.com, Kodaikanal - Hotels
  13. State Bank of India, ATM Locator
  14. kodaikanal.com Kodaikanal Banks
  15. atmbankindia, ATM Bank Locations in Kodaikanal
  16. kodaikanalonline.com Banks
  17. kodaikanal.com, Agriculture
  18. kodaikanal.com, - Hospitals
  19. The Hindu, "Prevent mercury pollution”, (2007-8-23),
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Further reading[ફેરફાર કરો]

  • Charlotte Chandler Wyckoff: Kodaikanal: 1845-1945. London Mission Press, Nagercoil, Travancore, Indien. 1945.
  • Nora Mitchell: The Indian Hill Station Kodaikanal. Research paper, University of Chicago, Department of Geography, No. 141. Chicago Ill., 1972.
  • Volker Winkler: Kodaikanal. Land of the Clouds. Hillsboro Press, Franklin (Tennessee) 1999.

External links[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Tamil Nadu ઢાંચો:Municipalities of Tamil Nadu ઢાંચો:Dindigul District