ઢાંચો:Cite paper

વિકિપીડિયાથી
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Cite journal is a template used to format references to articles in magazines and academic journals and for academic papers in a consistent and legible manner. It can be placed within <ref>...</ref> tags for in-line citations or directly as an entry in the References section. See also: મદદ:Footnotes.

{{Cite journal}} is intended for papers in journals, which are issued periodically and have volume and (usually) issue numbers. It is not intended for conference proceedings, which should be cited with {{Cite conference}}. Nor is it intended for articles in edited books or in encyclopedias or similar collections, which should be cited with {{Cite encyclopedia}} (which, despite its name, applies to all edited collections, not only encyclopedias).

Easier ways of citing are available. If the paper:

વપરાશ[ફેરફાર કરો]

All field names must be lowercase. Unused fields should be removed, rather than left blank.

Common parameters, horizontal format

  • {{cite journal |last1= |first1= |last2= |first2= |year= |title= |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |publisher= |doi= |url= |accessdate= }}

Common parameters for Vancouver system citations

  • {{cite journal |author= |year= |title= |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |publisher= |doi= |pmid= |pmc= |url= |accessdate= }}

All parameters, horizontal format

  • {{cite journal |last= |first= |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |title= |trans_title= |journal= |volume= |series= |issue= |page= |pages= |at= |chapter= |location= |publisher= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |language= |format= |arxiv= |id= |isbn= |issn= |oclc= |pmid= |pmc= |bibcode= |doi= |accessdate= |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |laysource= |laysummary= |laydate= |quote= |ref= |separator= |postscript= }}


All Parameters
Using lastname, firstname
All Parameters
Using author
Common Parameters
Using lastname, firstname
Common Parameters
Using author
{{cite journal
 | last1 = 
 | first1 = 
 | authorlink1 = 
 | last2 = 
 | first2 = 
 | authorlink2 = 
 | editor-last = 
 | editor-first = 
 | editor-link = 
 | date = 
 | year = 
 | month = 
 | title = 
 | trans_title = 
 | journal = 
 | volume = 
 | issue = 
 | series = 
 | pages = 
 | location = 
 | publisher = 
 | language = 
 | format = 
 | arxiv = 
 | id = 
 | isbn = 
 | issn = 
 | oclc = 
 | pmid = 
 | pmc = 
 | bibcode = 
 | doi = 
 | accessdate = 
 | url = 
 | archiveurl = 
 | archivedate = 
 | laysource = 
 | laysummary = 
 | laydate = 
 | quote = 
 | ref = 
 | separator = 
 | postscript = 
}}
{{cite journal
 | author = 
 | authorlink = 
 | editor = 
 | editor-link = 
 | date = 
 | year = 
 | month = 
 | title = 
 | trans_title = 
 | journal = 
 | volume = 
 | issue = 
 | series = 
 | pages = 
 | location = 
 | publisher = 
 | language = 
 | format = 
 | arxiv = 
 | id = 
 | isbn = 
 | issn = 
 | oclc = 
 | pmid = 
 | pmc = 
 | bibcode = 
 | doi = 
 | accessdate = 
 | url = 
 | archiveurl = 
 | archivedate = 
 | laysource = 
 | laysummary = 
 | laydate = 
 | quote = 
 | ref = 
 | separator = 
 | postscript = 
}}
{{cite journal
 | last1 = 
 | first1 = 
 | authorlink1 = 
 | last2 = 
 | first2 = 
 | authorlink2 = 
 | year = 
 | month = 
 | title = 
 | journal = 
 | volume = 
 | issue = 
 | pages = 
 | location = 
 | publisher = 
 | format = 
 | arxiv = 
 | id = 
 | bibcode = 
 | doi = 
 | accessdate = 
 | url = 
}}
{{cite journal
 | author = 
 | authorlink = 
 | editor = 
 | editorlink = 
 | year = 
 | month = 
 | title = 
 | journal = 
 | volume = 
 | issue = 
 | pages = 
 | location = 
 | publisher = 
 | format = 
 | arxiv = 
 | id = 
 | bibcode = 
 | doi = 
 | accessdate = 
 | url = 
}}

Result (using lastname, firstname) last, first; coauthors (date). editor-last, editor-first. ed. [archiveurl "title [trans_title]"] (language માં) (format). journal. series (location: publisher) volume (issue): pages. arXiv:arxiv

       . Bibcode bibcode
         . doi:10.doi
     . ISSN issn
      . OCLC oclc
      . PMC pmc
     . PMID pmid
      . id. Archived from [url the original] on archivedate. archiveurl. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત accessdate. [laysummary Lay summary] – laysource (laydate). "quote"

Result (using author) author (date). editor. ed. [archiveurl "title [trans_title]"] (language માં) (format). journal (location: publisher) volume (issue): pages. arXiv:arxiv

       . Bibcode bibcode
         . doi:10.doi
     . ISSN issn
      . OCLC oclc
      . PMC pmc
     . PMID pmid
      . id. Archived from [url the original] on archivedate. archiveurl. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત accessdate. [laysummary Lay summary] – laysource (laydate). "quote"

ઉદાહરણ[ફેરફાર કરો]

Formal citation

{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=Joseph III |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |year=1879 |month=October |page=289}}
  • Smith, Joseph III (October 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26: 289.

Vancouver style (common in biomedicine)

{{cite journal |author=Bannen RM, Suresh V, Phillips GN Jr, Wright SJ, Mitchell JC |title=Optimal design of thermally stable proteins |journal=Bioinformatics |volume=24 |issue=20 |pages=2339–43 |year=2008 |pmid=18723523 |pmc=2562006 |doi=10.1093/bioinformatics/btn450 |url=http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/24/20/2339 }}
     . PMC 2562006
     . PMID 18723523
      . http://bioinformatics.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/24/20/2339.

Include URL link to free-article, pre-print or abstract; also supply access date unless the URL is known to be stable.

{{cite journal |journal= Energy Policy |year=2008 |volume=36 |issue=6 |pages=1858–1866 |title= Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: a literature review |author=Aries, Myriam B. C.; and Newsham, Guy R. |doi=10.1016/j.enpol.2007.05.021 |url=http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/obj/irc/doc/pubs/nrcc49212/nrcc49212.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=September 1, 2009 }}
     . http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/obj/irc/doc/pubs/nrcc49212/nrcc49212.pdf. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત September 1, 2009.

Specify the DOI to provide a permanent link. Also give the PMID abstract for medical articles, and the URL if the article is free. PubMed Central free full-text repository links may also be supplied and will link the title if URL not specified, else as additional linked PMC value at the end of the citation

{{cite journal |author=Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; ''et al.'' |title=The AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 catalytic subunit controls whole-body insulin sensitivity |journal=The Journal of Clinical Investigation |volume=111 |issue=1 |pages=91–8 |year=2003 |month=January |pmid=12511592 |pmc=151837 |doi=10.1172/JCI16567 |url=http://www.jci.org/articles/view/16567 }}
     . PMC 151837
     . PMID 12511592
      . http://www.jci.org/articles/view/16567.

Whereas if the url had not been specified, then the title is linked to PubMed Central's copy of the article and no duplicate PMC link is shown for compactness:

{{cite journal |author=Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; ''et al.'' |title=The AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 catalytic subunit controls whole-body insulin sensitivity |journal=The Journal of Clinical Investigation |volume=111 |issue=1 |pages=91–8 |year=2003 |month=January |pmid=12511592 |pmc=151837 |doi=10.1172/JCI16567 |url= }}
  • Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; et al. (January 2003). [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". "The AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 catalytic subunit controls whole-body insulin sensitivity"]. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 111 (1): 91–8. doi:10.1172/JCI16567
     . PMC 151837
     . PMID 12511592
      . Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�"..

If the doi link is broken, then use of the doi_brokendate parameter unlinks the doi value, indicates when the doi-problem was first noticed, and will also add the page to "Category:Pages with DOIs broken since YYYY":

{{cite journal |author=Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; ''et al.'' |title=The AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 catalytic subunit controls whole-body insulin sensitivity |journal=The Journal of Clinical Investigation |volume=111 |issue=1 |pages=91–8 |year=2003 |month=January |pmid=12511592 |pmc=151837 |doi=10.1172/JCI16567 |doi_brokendate=June 18, 2008 |url= }}
  • Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; et al. (January 2003). [Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". "The AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 catalytic subunit controls whole-body insulin sensitivity"]. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 111 (1): 91–8. doi:10.1172/JCI16567 (inactive June 18, 2008)
     . PMC 151837
     . PMID 12511592
      . Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�"..

If the article is in a foreign language, and the original title is unknown

{{cite journal |author=Huang, Y.; Lu, J.; Shen, Y.; and Lu, J. |trans_title=The protective effects of total flavonoids from ''Lycium barbarum'' L. on lipid peroxidation of liver mitochondria and red blood cell in rats |language=Chinese |journal=Wei Sheng Yan Jiu |volume=28 |issue=2 |pages=115–6 |year=1999 |month=March |pmid=11938998 }}
  • Huang, Y.; Lu, J.; Shen, Y.; and Lu, J. (March 1999). "[The protective effects of total flavonoids from Lycium barbarum L. on lipid peroxidation of liver mitochondria and red blood cell in rats]" (Chinese માં). Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 28 (2): 115–6. PMID 11938998
      .

Other examples

{{cite journal |last=Fowler |first=Martin |authorlink=Martin Fowler |coauthors=Beck, Kent |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |year=1879 |month=October |pages=289}}
  • Fowler, Martin; Beck, Kent (October 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26: 289.
{{cite journal |first=W. Hugh |last=Woodin |title=The Continuum Hypothesis, Part I |journal=Notices of the AMS |volume=48 |issue=6 |year=2001 |pages=567–576 |location=Providence, RI |publisher=American Mathematical Society |url=http://www.ams.org/notices/200106/fea-woodin.pdf |format=PDF |issn=1088-9477 |oclc=34550461 }}
      . OCLC 34550461
      . http://www.ams.org/notices/200106/fea-woodin.pdf.
{{cite journal |title=Disney Releases 10 Titles on Laser Videodisc |year=1982 |journal=VIDEODISC/VIDEOTEX |volume=2 |issue=3 |pages=175}}
  • "Disney Releases 10 Titles on Laser Videodisc". VIDEODISC/VIDEOTEX 2 (3): 175. 1982.

Parameters[ફેરફાર કરો]

Syntax[ફેરફાર કરો]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata; see Wikipedia:COinS.

  • Be careful using templates within the citation template, as many will add a lot of extraneous HTML or CSS that will be rendered in the meta-data.
    • Known templates that should not be used: {{smallcaps}}.

By default, sets of fields are terminated with a period (.); this can be an issue when the last field in an abbreviation or initial with a period, as two periods then display. The only solution is to not include the last period in the value for the set of fields.

Description[ફેરફાર કરો]

  • last: Surname of author. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: last1, author, authors, author1.
    • first: Given or first names of author, including title(s); for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use authorlink instead. Aliases: first1.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through last9, first9 for up to nine authors. By default, if nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and "et al." will show in place of the last author. Aliases: author1 through author9.
  • authorlink: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: authorlink1, author-link, author1-link.
  • OR: for multiple authors, use authorlink1 through authorlink9. Aliases: author1-link through author9-link.
When using Shortened footnotes or Parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field else the anchor will not match the inline link.
  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Formatted in quotes.
    • trans_title: If the source cited is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. The template will display this in square brackets after the title field and it will link to the url field, if used. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; &#124;
  • work: Name of the periodical; formatted in italics; aliases: work, journal, periodical, magazine
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter is italicized and is not enclosed in quotes.
location and publisher are enclosed in parentheses.
page and pages do not show p. or pp.
edition does not show.
  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised" etc. Displays " ed." after this field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes; displayed in bold after the title and series fields; if bolding is not desired, then include the volume information in the title field.
  • date: Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[૧] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.
  • OR: year: Year of source being referenced.
    • month: Name of the month of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead; do not wikilink.
    • origyear: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics; example: |origyear=First published 1859 or |origyear=Composed 1904.
  1. Publication dates in article references should all have the same format. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.
  • publisher: Name of publisher; corporate designations such as "Ltd" or "Inc" are not usually included; may be wikilinked if relevant.
    • location: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked.
    • publication-date: Date of publication; in same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink.
  • language: The language the source is written in, if not English. Formatted in parentheses with "in" before the language name. Use the full language name; do not use icons or templates.
  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-first, editor1-last through editor4-first, editor4-last for up to four editors.
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor1-link through editor4-link.
Format:
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."; more than three editors will be followed by "et al., eds.".
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "Illustrated by Smith" or "Trans. Smith".
  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.
  • page: Page in the source that supports the content; preceded with p. unless |nopp=y or journal, periodical, magazine or para are defined.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source; preceded with pp. unless |nopp=y or journal, periodical, magazine or para are defined.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient; overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.
  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not link to any commercial booksellers such as Amazon.com; see WP:BOOKLINKS. If url is not defined but pmc is, then url is set to the pmc link.
    • Embargo: Date that pmc goes live; if this is in the future, then then url is not set to the pmc link until that date.
    • accessdate: Full date when URL was accessed; use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink.
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and the Internet Archive; requires archivedate.
      • archivedate: Date when the item was archived; use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink; requires archiveurl.
      • deadurl: To change the order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end, set |deadurl=no.
    • template doc demo: The archive parameters have error checking to ensure that all the required parameters are included, else {{citation error}} is invoked. On errors, main, help and template pages are placed into Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template doc demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; HTML is implied and should not be specified; displayed in parentheses after title.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news:, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters they will display and link incorrectly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace these characters:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
 %20  %22  %27  %3c  %3e  %5b  %5d  %7c  %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; but unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; but an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source; enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.
  • laysummary: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary".
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary; formatted in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary; enclosed in parentheses.
  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value to set the dash in em spaces; set author-mask to a text value to display a word instead; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use in bibliographies for some styles where multiple works by a single author are listed. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control as to the order that references will display.
  • author-name-separator: Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space (, ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • author-separator: Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space (; ); if the parameter is present, but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; a space must be encoded as &#32; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.
  • display-authors: By default, the number of authors displayed is limited to 8; if 9 are provided, the ninth is displayed as "et al." This parameter allows display of fewer authors before the "et al."; for example, use |display-authors=2 for only two authors. The "et al." may be suppressed altogether by setting |display-authors=9.
  • lastauthoramp: When set to any value, changes the separator to use between the last two names in lists of authors to an ampersand (&); defaults to a semicolon and space (; ), else author-separator if set.
  • postscript: The closing punctuation for the citation; defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present, but blank, no terminating punctuation will be used. Ignored if quote is defined.
  • separator: The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to a period (.); if the parameter is present but blank, no separator punctuation will be used; do not use an asterisk (*), colon (:) or hash (#) as they will be interpreted as wikimarkup.

Notes[ફેરફાર કરો]

Although it may appear redundant to include multiple ids for articles, it is helpful for many editors who only have access to a certain resource. If only one ID is to be included, the DOI should be used, as this is the universal standard preferred by professional publications. Specifying a link as a doi, pmid etc is always preferable to including it as a url parameter, as it makes it clear that the link is accurate and stable, but not necessarily openly accessible.

ઢાંચો:Wikipedia referencing ઢાંચો:UF-COinS