ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ

વિકિપીડિયાથી
આના પર જાવ: ભ્રમણ, શોધો
ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ
Indian National Congress
Chairperson સોનિયા ગાંધી
Parliamentary Chairperson સોનિયા ગાંધી
Leader in Rajya Sabha મનમોહન સિંહ
(વડાપ્રધાન)
Founded ૧૮૮૫
Headquarters ૨૪, અકબર Road,
New Delhi, ૧૧૦૦૧૧
Newspaper કોંગ્રેસ સંદેશ
Student wing National Students Union of India
Youth wing Indian Youth Congress
Women's wing Mahila Congress
Labour wing Indian National Trade Union Congress
Ideology Populism
Indian Nationalism
(Liberal nationalism)
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Gandhian socialism
Progressivism
Internal factions:
Social liberalism
Secularism
Centrism
Social conservatism
Political position Center-left[૧]
International affiliation Alliance of Democrats[૨]
Colours એક્વા
ECI Status રાષ્ટ્રીય પક્ષ
Alliance United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
લોક સભામાં બેઠકો
૨૦૬ / ૫૪૫
રાજ્ય સભામાં બેઠકો
૭૦ / ૨૪૫
Election symbol
125px
વેબસાઇટ
www.aicc.org.in

ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ (ટુંકાણ INC, and commonly known as the કોંગ્રેસ) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the ભારતીય જનતા પાર્ટી (ભાજપા). It is the largest and one of the oldest democratically-operating political parties in the world.[૩][૪][૫] The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered centre-left wing in the Indian political spectrum as contrasted to the right-wing socio-religious ultra-nationalist-based Bharatiya Janata Party. Founded in 1885 by members of the occultist movement Theosophical Society[૬]Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Monomohun Ghose, Mahadev Govind Ranade[૭] and William Wedderburn—the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ became a pivotal participant in the Indian Independence Movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its struggle against British colonial rule in India. After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political party, led by the Nehru-Gandhi family for the most part; major challenges for party leadership have only recently formed.

In the 2009 general elections, the Congress emerged as the single largest party in the Lok Sabha, with 206 of its candidates getting elected to the 543-member house. Consequently it, as a member of a coalition of political organisations called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), was able to gain a majority and form the government.

History[ફેરફાર કરો]

The history of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ falls into two distinct eras:

  • The pre-independence era, when the party was at the forefront of the struggle for independence and was instrumental in the whole of India;
  • The post-independence era, when the party has enjoyed a prominent place in Indian politics, ruling the country for 48 of the 60 years since independence in 1947.

In the pre-independence era, the Congress was ideologically divided into two groups, moderate and activist. The moderates were more educated and wanted to win people's faith to lead the nation to independence without fighting; the activists, on the other hand, favoured more revolutionary tactics and seeked to make the INC a paramillatary group.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

The pre-independence era[ફેરફાર કરો]

First session of ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, Bombay, 28–31 December 1885.

The Congress was founded by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume.[૬] It has been suggested that the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of seventeen men after a Theosophical Convention held at Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and it was in March 1885 that the first notice was issued convening the first Indian રાષ્ટ્રીય Union to meet at Poona the following December.[૮]

Founded in 1885 claiming that it had the objective of obtaining a greater share in government for educated Indians, the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ was initially not opposed to British rule. The Congress met once a year during December. Indeed, it was a Scotsman, Allan Octavian Hume, who brought about its first meeting in Bombay, with the approval of Lord Dufferin, the then-Viceroy. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first President of the INC. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Pune, but due to a plague outbreak there, the meeting was later shifted to Bombay. The first session of the INC was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates.

Within a few years, the demands of the INC became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the government, and the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement, as it would allow for a new political system in which they could be a majorly dominant party. By 1907 the party was split into two halves—the Garam Dal (literally "hot faction") of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, or Extremists, and the Naram Dal (literally "soft faction") of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, or Moderates—distinguished by their attitude towards the British colonists. Under the influence of Tilak, the Congress became the first organised independence group in the country, bringing together millions of people against the British.

In the pre-independence era, the INC featured a number of prominent political figures: Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, elected president of the Congress in 1886, and between 1892 and 1895 the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons; Bal Gangadhar Tilak; Bipin Chandra Pal; Lala Lajpat Rai; Gopal Krishna Gokhale; and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905 and the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mohandas Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915 and with the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale became president of the Congress and formed an alliance with the Khilafat movement. In protest a number of leaders—Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, Motilal Nehru—resigned from the Congress to set up the Swaraj Party. The Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split.

Mahatma Gandhi, President of Congress party during 1924

With the rise of Mahatma Gandhi's popularity and his Satyagraha art of revolution came Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (the nation's first Prime Minister), Dr. Rajendra Prasad (the nation's first President), Khan Mohammad Abbas Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Chakravarti Rajgopalachari, Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha, Jayaprakash Narayan, Jivatram Kripalani and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. With the already existing nationalistic feeling combined with Gandhi's popularity, the Congress became a forceful and dominant group of people in the country, bringing together millions of people by specifically working against caste differences, untouchability, poverty, and religious and ethnic boundaries. Although predominantly Hindu, it had members from just about every religion, ethnic group, economic class and linguistic group. In 1939, Subhas Chandra Bose, the elected president in both 1938 and 1939 was expelled from the Congress for his socialist views and the Congress was reduced to a pro-business group financed by the business houses of Birla and Bajaj. At the time of the Quit India movement, the Congress was undoubtedly the strongest revolutionary group in India, but the Congress disassociated itself from the Quit India movement within a few days. The ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ could not claim to be the sole representative of the Indian people as other parties were there as well notably the Hindu Mahasabha, Azad Hind Sarkar, and Forward Bloc.

The 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru holds special significance as in this session "Poorna Swaraj" (complete independence) was declared as the goal of the INC. 26 January 1930 was declared as "Poorna Swaraj Diwas", Independence Day, although the British would remain in India for 17 more years. To commemorate this date the Constitution of India was formally adopted on 26 January 1950, even though it had been passed on 26 November 1949. However, in 1929, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the Congress for demanding full independence, not just home rule as demanded by Gandhi.

After the First World War the party became associated with Mohandas K. Gandhi, who remained its unofficial, spiritual leader and mass icon even as younger men and women became party president. The party was in many ways an umbrella organization, sheltering within itself radical socialists, traditionalists and even Hindu and Muslim conservatives, but all the socialist groupings (including the Congress Socialist Party, Krishak Praja Party, and Swarajya Party members) were expelled by Gandhi along with Subhas Chandra Bose in 1939. Members of the Congress initially supported the sailors who led the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny. However they withdrew support at the critical juncture, when the mutiny failed. During the INA trials of 1946, the Congress helped to form the INA Defence Committee, which forcefully defended the case of the soldiers of the Azad Hind government. The committee declared the formation of the Congress' defence team for the INA and included famous lawyers of the time, including Bhulabhai Desai, Asaf Ali, and Jawaharlal Nehru.

The post-independence era[ફેરફાર કરો]

The party remained in power for thirty continuous years between independence in 1947 and its first taste of electoral defeat (at the રાષ્ટ્રીય level) in ૧૯૭૭.

જવાહરલાલ નેહરુ[ફેરફાર કરો]

જવાહરલાલ નેહરુ, પ્રથમ કોંગ્રેસ ભારતના વડાપ્રધાન (૧૯૪૭–૧૯૬૪).

મહાત્મા ગાંધી and સરદાર પટેલ are said to have held the view that the INC was formed only for achieving independence and should have been disbanded in ૧૯૪૭.[૯] However, at the time of independence, the INC (led by જવાહરલાલ નેહરુ) was dominant in the Indian political environment and was established as મુખ્ય રાજનૈતિક પક્ષ. કોંગ્રેસ thus, considering the perceived need for a stable leadership and guiding vision after the confusion and problems during and following the ભારતના ભાગલા અને સ્વાધીનતા, was re-established as an electoral party સ્વાધીન ભારતમાં. Across several general elections, the party ruled uninterruptedly until ૧૯૭૭, and has remained a major political force.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

૧૯૪૮માં ગાંધીની હત્યા, તથા ૧૯૫૦માં સરદાર પટેલ મૃત્યુ પછી, જવાહરલાલ નેહરુ એકમાત્ર બાકી અપ્રતીમ રાષ્ટ્રીય નેતા હતા, and soon the situation became such that Nehru was key રાજનૈતિક બળ અને કોંગ્રેસ ભાવિ છે. નેહરુ embraced secularism, socialistic economic practices and a non-aligned foreign policy, જે આધુનિક કોંગ્રેસ પાર્ટીના ચિહ્ન બની ગયો હતો. નેહરુ's policies targeted the more well-off, claiming to have thus improved the position of religious minorities and lower-caste Hindus. A generation of freedom fighting leaders was soon replaced by a generation of people who had grown up in the shadow of નેહરુ. નેહરુ ૧૯૫૨, ૧૯૫૭ અને ૧૯૬૨ની ચૂંટણીમાં સતત બહુમતી માટે કોંગ્રેસ સમાવેશ થાય છે.

૧૯૬૪માં નહેરુ મૃત્યુ પછી, પક્ષના ભવિષ્યની પ્રથમ પ્રશ્ન કર્યો હતો. No other leader had નેહરુની popular appeal, so the second-stage leadership mustered around the compromise candidate, the gentle, soft-spoken and Nehruvian લાલ બહાદુર શાસ્ત્રી. શાસ્ત્રી remained વડાપ્રધાન till his own મૃત્યુ ૧૯૬૬માં, તથા એક broad કોંગ્રેસ પાર્ટી election opted for ઈન્દિરા ગાંધી, નેહરુની પુત્રી, over the right-wing, conservative મોરારજી દેસાઈ.

K. Kamaraj[ફેરફાર કરો]

Toward the end of Nehru's life, K. Kamaraj was became the president of the All India Congress Committee and proposed the Kamaraj Plan. According to the plan six Congress chief ministers and six senior Cabinet ministers resigned to take up party work. After Nehru's death, Kamaraj was instrumental in bringing Lal Bahadur Shastri to power in 1964. He was part of a group of leaders in the Congress called "the syndicate". After Shastri's death, the syndicate favoured Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi over Morarji Desai and she became the prime minister of India in 1967. For his role in the two successions, Kamaraj was widely credited as the "kingmaker" in Indian politics. Kamaraj stepped down as AICC president in 1967.

Indira Gandhi[ફેરફાર કરો]

Indira Gandhi, thrice Prime Minister of India.

The first serious challenge to Congress hegemony came in 1967 when a new coalition, under the banner of the Samyukt Vidhayak Dal, won control over several states in the Hindi belt. Indira Gandhi (not related to Mahatma Gandhi), the daughter of Nehru, and Congress president, was then challenged by the majority of the party leadership. The conflict led to a split, and Indira launched a separate INC. Initially this party was known as Congress (R), but it soon came to be generally known as the "New Congress". The official party became the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ (Organisation) (INC(O)) led by Kamaraj. It was informally called the "Old Congress". As Indira Gandhi had control over the રાષ્ટ્રીય state machinery, her faction was seen as the official INC by the Election Commission of India, although her party was a break-away group.

The split can in some ways be seen as a left-wing/right-wing division. Indira Gandhi wanted to use a populist agenda in order to gather popular support for the party. She raised slogans such as Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty), and wanted to develop closer ties with the Soviet Union, for strategic purposes.[૧૦] The regional party elites, who formed the INC(O), stood for a more conservative agenda, and distrusted Soviet help. INC(O) later merged into the Janata Party.

Gradually, Indira Gandhi grew more authoritarian and autocratic in her policies and outlook. Following allegations of electoral malpractice in the general elections, a court overturned Gandhi's victory in her parliamentary constituency in thr 1971 General Elections. Facing growing criticism and widespread demonstrations by opposition in the country, she proclaimed a state of રાષ્ટ્રીય Emergency in 1975, imprisoned most of her party's opposition, and unleashed a police state.

After she lifted the emergency in 1977, more Congress factions were formed, the one remaining loyal to Indira Gandhi being popularly known as Congress(I) with an 'I' for Indira. Congress(I) was routed in the general elections by the Janata Party, but the resulting coalition government lasted for two years, much shorter than the INC's long dictatorship. The Congress party returned to power in the ensuing 1980 elections. In 1984 Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards, in revenge for the disastrous Operation Blue Star. In the following days anti-Sikh riots broke out in Delhi and elsewhere in which more than six thousand Sikhs were killed, purportedly by activists and leaders of the Congress Party.[૧૧]

The post-Indira era[ફેરફાર કરો]

સોનિયા ગાંધી, Chairperson of the United Progressive Alliance and President of ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ

Following the assassination of Indira Gandhi in 1984, the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ party leaders nominated Rajiv Gandhi to be the next Prime Minister. He took office by storm, winning major election victory, and leading the Congress party by winning 411 seats out of 542, in the Indian Parliament. He helped improve the economic, foreign and security policies of the country, during his tenure.

Afterward, former treasurer Sitaram Kesri took over the reins of the party and oversaw the Congress support to the United Front governments that ran from 1996 to 1998. During his tenure, several key leaders broke away from the party, and serious infighting broke out among those left. In 1998, સોનિયા ગાંધી finally accepted the post of Congress President, in a move that may have saved the party from extinction.

After her election as party leader, a section of the party, which objected to the choice, broke away and formed the Nationalist Congress Party. The use of "Congress (I)" continues to denote the party run by Indira Gandhi's successors. સોનિયા ગાંધી's autocratic era in power has been criticised by some, including the ultra-nationalist right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party (Indian People's Party) and the ultra-left wing Communist Party of India (Marxist) as well as other, mostly affilliated, groups on the basis that she is a foreigner of Italian ethnicity.

Although the Congress expedited the downfall of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in 1999 by promising an alternative, Ms. Gandhi's decision was followed by fresh elections and the Congress party's worst-ever tally in the lower house. The party spent the interval period forging alliances and overseeing changes in the state and central institutions to revive the party. It has had many electoral successes which led up to the formation of a Congress-led government in 2004. In the next general election in 2009 which made મનમોહન સિંહ the Prime Minister once again, and Congress was the first party to get 206 seats during a coalition era of politics.

Recent Electoral History[ફેરફાર કરો]

A Congress rally in New Delhi.

In the 2004 general elections, the Congress alliance won the largest number of seats and got an assurance of support from the Left Front upsetting the Atal Bihari Vajpayee-led National Democratic Alliance, which was variously forecast to win outright victory or at least emerge as the largest alliance. Shortly thereafter, સોનિયા ગાંધી was nominated by the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance to be the next Prime Minister. But સોનિયા ગાંધી refused to take the position based on her "inner voice". She backed eminent economist, former Union Finance Minister and senior Congress leader Dr. મનમોહન સિંહ for the post of Prime Minister, and he was sworn-in as Prime Minister on 22 May 2004. Despite strong opposition from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), AIADMK, SP, RJD, LJP, TDP, Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ won the elections again in 2009, the people gave their mandate to the Congress party and it was the only party to achieve 206 seats in 20 years. The youth supported the Congress under the leadership of Rahul Gandhi.(સંદર્ભ આપો) The Congress's popularity increased by 61% during the elections.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

Ideology and policies[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Refimprove section Historically, the party has supported and advocated in favour of farmers, laborers, worker's unions (Labour unions), and religious and ethnic minorities; it has also advocated in favour of the regulation of business and finance, and has looked favourably upon the levying of income taxes. However, in recent years the party has turned towards centrist economic and social democratic policies. Today, the INC advocates neo-liberal policies including populism, social liberalism, secularism and free enterprise with government regulations such as public–private partnership (PPP) model. As a political party, the INC has publicised its intentions to do all it can to reduce poverty, illiteracy and strongly supports the weaker section of the society.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

Social policy[ફેરફાર કરો]

Social policy of the INC is officially based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya (upliftment of all sections of the society.) In particular INC emphasises upon policies to improve the lives of the economically underprivillaged and socially disprivilleged sections of society. This includes publicising employment generation efforts for the rural population (through schemes such as National Rural Employment Generation Scheme) etc. The party supports the somewhat controversial concept of family planning with birth control but hasn't overtly supported elective abortion (i.e. Gender-Selective abortion)(સંદર્ભ આપો) , which would be controversial and dangerous as certain groups (e.g. Feminists) could consider that to be sexist or insensitive and the INC wouldn't have been able to survive under such pressure. The INC supports the highly controversial 'Reservation' system (i.e. reserving jobs and other things for underprivileged factions of society) which could lead to an inexperienced poorer person getting a job instead of an experienced wealthier person, though it could also be vice versa.

Economic policy[ફેરફાર કરો]

Initially and for a long time, the economic policy of the INC was centred around the public sector and aimed at establishing a "socialistic pattern of society". However, after the recent adoption of Economically Liberal policies started by મનમોહન સિંહ the then Finance Minister(સંદર્ભ આપો) in the early 1990s, the economic policy of INC has been changed somewhat and it is now adopted free market policies, though at the same time it is in favour of taking a cautious approach when it comes to liberalising the economy claiming it is to help ensure that the weaker sectors aren't affected to hard by the changes that come with liberalisation.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

Foreign policy[ફેરફાર કરો]

Traditionally, nonalignment has been the bedrock of the foreign policy of the INC.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

Organisational Structure[ફેરફાર કરો]

The organisational structure created by Mohandas Gandhi's re-arrangement of the Congress in the years of 1918 to 1920 has largely been retained till today.

In every Indian state and union territory or pradesh, there is a Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC), which is the state-level unit of the party, responsible for directing political campaigns at local and state levels and assisting the campaigns for Parliamentary constituencies. Each PCC has a Working Committee of 10–15 key members, and the state president is the leader of the state unit. The Congressmen elected as members of the states legislative assemblies form the Congress Legislature Parties in the various state assemblies, and their chairperson is usually the party's nominee for Chief Ministership.

The All India Congress Committee (AICC) is formed of delegates sent from the PCCs around the country. The delegates elect various Congress committees, including the Congress Working Committee, which consists of senior party leaders and office bearers, and takes all important executive and political decisions.

The President of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ is in effect the party's national leader, head of the organization, head of the Working Committee and all chief Congress committees, chief spokesman and the Congress choice to become the Prime Minister of India.

Constitutionally, the president is to be elected by the vote of the PCCs and members of the AICC. However, this procedure has often been by-passed by the Working Committee, choosing to elect its own candidate as a result of conditional circumstances.

The Congress Parliamentary Party (CPP) is the group of elected MPs in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. It is headed by senior Congress leader Pranab Mukherjee. Since the current Prime Minister Dr.મનમોહન સિંહ is not an elected member of the Lok Sabha, Pranab is the CPP president. Dr. Singh is Leader of the Rajya Sabha. There is also a CLP leader in each state. The CLP (Congress Legislative Party) consists of all Congress Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) in each state. It also comes under the CPP so Pranab is head of the MLAs also. In cases of states where the Congress is single-handedly ruling the government, the CLP leader is the Chief Minister.

Congress in Pradesh (States)[ફેરફાર કરો]

Congress in various states[ફેરફાર કરો]

Congress Ruled States in Green
  • Congress is currently in power in eight states (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Rajasthan) where the party enjoys a majority of its own.
  • In six other states — Assam, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala, West Bengal and Maharashtra — it shares power with other alliance partners.
  • In Tamil Nadu it lost power in the 1967 assembly election and has not been able to recapture it since.
  • In the remaining states and union territories, various opposition parties are in power.


Prime Ministers of the Republic from the Congress Party[ફેરફાર કરો]

List of current Congress Chief Ministers[ફેરફાર કરો]

List of presidents of the party[ફેરફાર કરો]

Name of President Life Span Year of Presidency Place of Conference
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee 29 December 1844– 1906 1885 Bombay
Dadabhai Naoroji 4 September 1825– 1917 1886 Calcutta
Badruddin Tyabji 10 October 1844– 1906 1887 Madras
George Yule 1829–1892 1888 Allahabad
Sir William Wedderburn 1838–1918 1889 Bombay
Sir Pherozeshah Mehta 4 August 1845– 1915 1890 Calcutta
P. Anandacharlu August 1843– 1908 1891 Nagpur
Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee 29 December 1844– 1906 1892 Allahabad
Dadabhai Naoroji 4 September 1825– 1917 1893 Lahore
Alfred Webb 1834–1908 1894 Madras
Surendranath Banerjea 10 November 1848– 1925 1895 Pune
Rahimtulla M. Sayani 5 April 1847– 1902 1896 Calcutta
Sir C. Sankaran Nair 11 July 1857– 1934 1897 Amraoti
Ananda Mohan Bose 23 September 1847– 1906 1898 Madras
Romesh Chunder Dutt 13 August 1848– 1909 1899 Lucknow
Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar 2 December 1855– 1923 1900 Lahore
Sir Dinshaw Edulji Wacha 2 August 1844– 1936 1901 Calcutta
Surendranath Banerjea 10 November 1825– 1917 1902 Ahmedabad
Lalmohan Ghosh 1848–1909 1903 Madras
Sir Henry Cotton 1845–1915 1904 Bombay
Gopal Krishna Gokhale 9 May 1866– 1915 1905 Benares
Dadabhai Naoroji 4 September 1825– 1917 1906 Calcutta
Rashbihari Ghosh 23 December 1845– 1921 1907 Surat
Rashbihari Ghosh 23 December 1845– 1921 1908 Madras
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya 25 December 1861– 1946 1909 Lahore
Sir William Wedderburn 1838–1918 1910 Allahabad
Pandit Bishan Narayan Dar 1864–1916 1911 Calcutta
Rao Bahadur Raghunath Narasinha Mudholkar 1857–1921 1912 Bankipur
Nawab Syed Muhammad Bahadur  ?- 1919 1913 Karachi
Bhupendra Nath Bose 1859–1924 1914 Madras
Lord Satyendra Prasanna Sinha March 1863– 1928 1915 Bombay
Ambica Charan Mazumdar 1850–1922 1916 Lucknow
Annie Besant 1 October 1847– 1933 1917 Calcutta
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya 25 December 1861– 1946 1918 Delhi
Syed Hasan Imam 31 August 1871– 1933 1918 Bombay (Special Session)
Pandit Motilal Nehru 6 May 1861– 6 February 1931 1919 Amritsar
Lala Lajpat Rai 28 January 1865– 17 November 1928 1920 Calcutta (Special Session)
C. Vijayaraghavachariar 1852– 19 April 1944 1920 Nagpur
Hakim Ajmal Khan 1863– 29 December 1927 1921 Ahmedabad
Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das 5 November 1870– 16 June 1925 1922 Gaya
Maulana Mohammad Ali 10 December 1878– 4 January 1931 1923 Kakinada
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 1888– 22 February 1958 1923 Delhi (Special Session)
Mahatma Gandhi 2 October 1869– 30 January 1948 1924 Belgaum
Sarojini Naidu 13 February 1879– 2 March 1949 1925 Kanpur
S. Srinivasa Iyengar September 11, 1874– 19 May 1941 1926 Gauhati
Dr. M A Ansari 25 December 1880– 10 May 1936 1927 Madras
Pandit Motilal Nehru 6 May 1861– 6 February 1931 1928 Calcutta
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889– 27 May 1964 1929 & 30 Lahore
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 31 October 1875– 15 December 1950 1931 Karachi
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya 25 December 1861– 1946 1932 Delhi
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya 25 December 1861– 1946 1933 Calcutta
Nellie Sengupta 1886–1973 1933 Calcutta
Dr. Rajendra Prasad 3 December 1884– 28 February 1963 1934 & 35 Bombay
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889– 27 May 1964 1936 Lucknow
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889– 27 May 1964 1936& 37 Faizpur
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose 23 January 1897– Unknown[૧૨] 1938 Haripura
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose 23 January 1897– Unknown[૧૨] 1939 Jabalpur
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 1888– 22 February 1958 1940–46 Ramgarh
Acharya J.B. Kripalani 1888– 19 March 1982 1947 Delhi
Dr Pattabhi Sitaraimayya 24 December 1880– 17 December 1959 1948 & 49 Jaipur
Purushottam Das Tandon 1 August 1882– 1 July 1961 1950 Nasik
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889– 27 May 1964 1951 & 52 Delhi
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889– 27 May 1964 1953 Hyderabad
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 14 November 1889– 27 May 1964 1954 Kalyani
U N Dhebar 21 September 1905– 1977 1955 Avadi
U N Dhebar 21 September 1905– 1977 1956 Amritsar
U N Dhebar 21 September 1905– 1977 1957 Indore
U N Dhebar 21 September 1905– 1977 1958 Gauhati
U N Dhebar 21 September 1905– 1977 1959 Nagpur
Indira Gandhi 19 November 1917– 31 October 1984 1959 Delhi
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 19 May 1913– 1 June 1996 1960 Bangalore
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 19 May 1913– 1 June 1996 1961 Bhavnagar
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 19 May 1913– 1 June 1996 1962 & 63 Patna
K. Kamaraj 15 July 1903– 2 October 1975 1964 Bhubaneswar
K. Kamaraj 15 July 1903– 2 October 1975 1965 Durgapur
K. Kamaraj 15 July 1903– 2 October 1975 1966 & 67 Jaipur
S. Nijalingappa 10 December 1902– 9 August 2000 1968 Hyderabad
S. Nijalingappa 10 December 1902– 9 August 2000 1969 Faridabad
Jagjivan Ram 5 April 1908– 6 July 1986 1970 & 71 Bombay
Dr Shankar Dayal Sharma 19 August 1918– 26 December 1999 1972– 74 Calcutta
Dev Kant Baruah 22 February 1914– 1996 1975– 77 Chandigarh
Indira Gandhi 19 November 1917– 31 October 1984 1978– 83 Delhi
Indira Gandhi 19 November 1917– 31 October 1984 1983 -84 Calcutta
Rajiv Gandhi 20 August 1944– 21 May 1991 1985 -91 Bombay
P. V. Narasimha Rao 28 June 1921– 23 December 2004 1992 -96 Tirupati
Sitaram Kesri November 1919– 24 October 2000 1997 -98 Kolkata
સોનિયા ગાંધી 9 December 1946– 1998–present Kolkata

Controversies and criticisms[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Disputed

1947: Anti-Godse riots[ફેરફાર કરો]

After the knowledge that the assassin of Mahatma Gandhi, Nathuram Godse, was a Maharashtrian Brahmin, some workers of the Congress Party went on a rampage, against the supporters of Savarkar and Nathuram Godse, burning their houses and putting thousands in jail.[૧૩]

1975-1977: State of Emergency[ફેરફાર કરો]

On 12 June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice. But Mrs Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court.

Indira had already been accused of authoritarianism. By using her strong parliamentary majority, her ruling Congress Party had amended the Constitution and altered the balance of power between the Centre and the States in favour of the Central Government. She had twice imposed "President's Rule" under Article 356 of the Constitution by declaring states ruled by opposition parties as "lawless and chaotic", and thus seizing control. In response to her new tendency for authoritarian use of power, public figures and former freedom-fighters like Jaya Prakash Narayan, Satyendra Narayan Sinha and Acharya Jivatram Kripalani toured India, speaking actively against her and her government.

Indira Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency, because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352 of the Constitution, on 26 June 1975. It is one of the most controversial periods in the history of independent India.[૧૪]

1984: anti-Sikh riots[ફેરફાર કરો]

After the assassination of Indira Gandhi by two of her Sikh Body Guards following Operation Blue Star, many Congress workers including Jagdish Tytler, Sajjan Kumar and Kamal Nath were accused of inciting and participating in Sikh riots.

There are allegations that the government destroyed evidence and shielded the guilty. The Asian Age front-page story called the government actions "the Mother of all Cover-ups"[૧૫][૧૬] There are allegations that the violence was led and often perpetrated by ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ activists and sympathizers during the riots.[૧૧] The government, then led by the Congress, was widely criticized for doing very little at the time, possibly acting as a conspirator. The conspiracy theory is supported by the fact that voting lists were used to identify Sikh families.

Bofors scandal[ફેરફાર કરો]

The Bofors scandal was a major corruption scandal in India in the 1980s. Late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, who was simultaneously serving as the president of Congress (I), and his associates the late Win Chadha and Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi were accused of receiving kickbacks to help Bofors win a bid in 1986 to sell 155 mm field howitzers to the Indian Army. The scale of this corruption was far worse than any that India had seen before, and directly led to the defeat of Gandhi's ruling Congress party in the November 1989 general elections. It has been speculated that the scale of the scandal was to the tune of Rs. 400 million.[૧૭]

The case came to light during Vishwanath Pratap Singh's tenure as defence minister, and was revealed through investigative journalism by Chitra Subramaniam and N. Ram of the newspapers the Indian Express and The Hindu.[૧૮]

In January 2011, an Income tax tribunal ruled that Rs. 41.2 crore was paid as kickbacks to the late Win Chadha and Italian businessman Ottavio Quattrocchi in the Swedish howitzer deal and the two are liable to tax in India on such income.[૧૯]

Charges of bidding for seats[ફેરફાર કરો]

In November 2008, senior Congress leader, Margaret Alva, made a charge that Congress seats for the elections were up for bidding as opposed to a meritocratic appointment to run. The party responded to the charge by denying such a claim, as well as dropping her as general secretary of the party, the Congress Working Committee and the party's Central Election Committee. She was also stripped of her charge of the Congress party in Maharashtra, Punjab, Haryana and Mizoram. Congress spokesperson, Shakeel Ahmad, added that "Congress president Mrs સોનિયા ગાંધી has taken the decision on the report submitted by Mr AK Antony, chairperson of the Disciplinary Action Committee."[૨૦] This followed an outburst by the son of the congress chairperson, Rahul Gandhi, that "Democracy in political parties is non-existent in India. You cannot enter unless you are well connected." In response the recent allegations he said, "I had made some recommendations to include some younger boys. I am not unhappy with the distribution of tickets."[૨૧]

Allegations of religious bias[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Disputed section

Pro Islamic Bias[ફેરફાર કરો]

The Congress party and its allies are sometimes accused of "pseudo" secularismઢાંચો:By whom?, in which only Hindus are expected to be secular while Muslims and other minorities remain free to practice exclusionary practices.[૨૨][dead link]

Softness shown towards religious extremism and terrorism[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:POV section Rivalling parties such as those from the NDA coalition (i.e. the BJP) have often claimed that the Congress party and other UPA coalition members might be too soft on Islamic extremist and fundamentalist ideologies and actions such as Islamic terrorism and Islamism by scrapping the Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act (POTA) immediately after it won the elections in 2004. Senior BJP leaders such as Nitin Gadkari and Narendra Modi have accused Congress Party of being soft on Indian terrorist groups such as Indian Mujahideen for the sake of vote bank politics.[૨૩][૨૪]

Congress and its allies are insulted by political rivals for not retalliating against Islamic terrorists in Kashmir and solely focusing on the issues of the Indian Muslim community to gain Muslim votes. Kashmiri Pandits have been in exile since January 1990 following the outbreak of terrorism in Kashmir.[૨૫]

2G spectrum scam[ફેરફાર કરો]

The scam was bought into limelight in 2010 when case filed against Minister for Communications and Information Technology A. Raja had been reported. 2G licenses were issued to private telecom players at throwaway prices in 2008. The CAG estimated on the basis of 3G auction that the 2G Spectrum scam had cost the government Rs. 1.76 lakh crore. Rules and procedures were flouted while issuing licenses.[૨૬] The CBI in the Supreme Court has since indicated that the factual loss is around Rs 30 000 crore.[૨૭]

The 2G spectrum scam came in a year that was full of scams for the Congress (UPA) government. The government meanwhile also faced the accusation of using the CBI for covering up scandals, in wake of which, the BJP chief Nitin Gadkari termed the CBI as "Congress Bureau of Investigation".[૨૮]

Bribes to Members of Parliament[ફેરફાર કરો]

As per United States secret diplomatic cable number 162458 dated 17 July 2008, Congress Party insider Satish Sharma's political aide Nachiketa Kapur told a US diplomat on 16 July 2008 that the party paid INR 100 million (about $2.5 million) each to four Members of Parliament[૨૯] in order to help the party narrowly survive a no-confidence motion.[૩૦] Another Congress Party insider told the US Political Counsel in New Delhi that Congress Party cabinet minister Kamal Nath was also helping bribe Members of Parliament in order to help secure the votes.[૨૯]

Other Charges of Corruption[ફેરફાર કરો]

Since the party has dominated the political landscape of India for over a century, there are many charges of corruption and authoritarianism against it, with people questioning India's Democracy. In the wake of the 2G Spectrum scam, the 2010 Commonwealth Games Scam and the Adarsh Housing Society Mumbai, a survey by an Indian magazine Outlook and a television news channel CNN-IBN in 2011 said that the Congress was seen as the most corrupt political party in India.[૩૧]

See also[ફેરફાર કરો]

References[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. Strong Victory For Center-Left Congress Party In India—World’s Two Largest Democracies Now Firmly Reject Conservatives, Texas Liberal,
  2. Political Parties, International Organizations and Individuals joining the Alliance of Democrats, Alliance of Democrats
  3. Rastogi, P.N. (1975). The nature and dynamics of factional conflict. Macmillan Co. of India.
  4. "Parliamentary Debates". Council of States Secretariat. 1976. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=VzM3AAAAIAAJ. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત November 26, 2012.
  5. Gavit, Manikrao Hodlya; Chand, Attar (1989). ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ: A Select Bibliography. U.D.H. Publishing House. pp. 451.
  6. ૬.૦ ૬.૧ Theosophy and the Origins of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, Bevir, Mark, University of California, Berkeley, Publication Date: 01-01-2003 s. 14–18. Original Citation: Mark Bevir, “Theosophy and the Origins of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ”, International Journal of Hindu Studies 7 (2003), 99–115. E.g., "Theosophical Society provided the framework for action within which some of its Indian and British members worked to form the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ.10", "1884 annual convention of the Theosophical Society. At this convention, Rao argued that the Society should start formally to discuss the political situation in India as well as more strictly religious matters. Although Rao did not get his way, he did arrange a meeting of sympathetic theosophists to be held at his home. Those who attended this meeting with Rao included Aiyar, Ananda Charlu, and M. Viraraghavachariar. They formed the Madras Mahajana Sabha," "meeting to coincide with the next annual convention of the Theosophical Society. This meeting would promote their idea of an all-India body." "Hume was probably the single most important individual for the formation of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ." "Mahatmas seemed to be directing Hume to maintain the correct balance between east and west (Ripon Papers). Certainly Hume thought the Mahatmas were superhuman beings with a special interest in the welfare of India. He believed their occult powers meant they possessed an unquestionable knowledge of Indian affairs", "Hume worked alongside some of the people he had met at the annual conventions of the Theosophical Society—Malabari, Rao, and Sen—in order to arrange the founding conference of Congress.", "The founders of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ relied on the contacts and commitments generated within the Society;" "Gandhi, like Malabari, Rao, and Sen, used theosophy to help restore his pride in his native culture to support his vision of ancient India as a vital, rational, and moral society (Gandhi 1948). British occultists, such as Besant, and western-educated Indians, such as Gandhi, turned to theosophy for different reasons, but once they had done so, they shared practices and intellectual commitments that helped sustain the nationalist movement."
  7. Mahadev Govind Ranade
  8. Sitaramayya, B. Pattabhi. 1935. The History of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ. Working Committee of the Congress. Scanned version
  9. Jesudasan, Ignatius. A Gandhian theology of liberation. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash: Ananda India, 1987, pp 225.
  10. Vohra, Pankaj (November 1, 2009). "The Original Aam Admi Leader". Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/News-Feed/ColumnsPankajVohra/The-original-aam-aadmi-leader/Article1-471695.aspx. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત November 23, 2012.
  11. ૧૧.૦ ૧૧.૧ "Leaders 'incited' anti-Sikh riots". BBC News. August 8, 2005. Retrieved November 23, 2012. 
  12. ૧૨.૦ ૧૨.૧ Disappearance of Subhas Chandra Bose
  13. Datta, Saikat (November 17, 2008). "Godse's War". Outlook India. http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?238938.
  14. "India in 1975: Democracy in Eclipse", ND Palmer – Asian Survey, vol 16 no 5. Opening lines.
  15. Mustafa, Seema (2005-08-09). "1984 Sikhs Massacres: Mother of All Cover-ups". Front page story (The Asian Age): p. 1.
  16. Agal, Renu (2005-08-11). "Justice delayed, justice denied". BBC News.
  17. "Key Players in Bofors Scandal". India Today (New Delhi). April 28, 2009. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/index.php?issueid=89&id=39264&option=com_content&task=view&sectionid=4. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત November 26, 2012.
  18. Singhvi, Vir (September 23, 1999). "Bofors' Ghosts". Rediff on the NeT. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  19. "I-T Tribunal nails Chadha, Quattrocchi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 January 2011. http://www.hindu.com/2011/01/04/stories/2011010460250100.htm.
  20. [૧][dead link]
  21. [૨][dead link]
  22. A Hindu backlash hits Sonia Gandhi–upiasiaonline.com
  23. Sharma, Ashwani (May 10, 2010). "Gadkari says Cong soft on terror for votebank politics". The Indian Express. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/gadkari-says-cong-soft-on-terror-for-voteban/616552/. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત November 23, 2012.
  24. Economic Times (14 September 2008). "Modi says Cong soft on terror". The Times Of India. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2008-09-14/news/27693899_1_national-executive-political-resolution-prime-ministerial-candidate.
  25. ndtv. "21 years of exile for Kashmiri Pandits". http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/after-21-years-in-exile-kashmiri-pandits-focus-on-raising-numbers-81048.
  26. 2G Spectrum Scam
  27. The truth in the 2G scam is slowly emerging
  28. CBI-Congress Bureau of Investigation
  29. ૨૯.૦ ૨૯.૧ "162458: Cash-for-votes ahead of confidence motion". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 17 March 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/news/the-india-cables/article1544916.ece.
  30. Ridge, Mian (July 23, 2008). "Indian Government Survives No-Confidence Vote". The Christian Science Monitor (New Delhi, India). http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-South-Central/2008/0723/p25s10-wosc.html. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત November 26, 2012.
  31. "It's a Bit too Transparent". Outlook. January 31, 2011. http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?270152. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત November 23, 2012.

Bibliography[ફેરફાર કરો]

Further reading[ફેરફાર કરો]

  • The ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ: An Historical Sketch, by Frederick Marion De Mello. Published by H. Milford, Oxford university press, 1934.
  • The ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, by Hemendra Nath Das Gupta. Published by J. K. Das Gupta, 1946.
  • ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ: A Descriptive Bibliography of India's Struggle for Freedom, by Jagdish Saran Sharma. Published by S. Chand, 1959.
  • Social Factors in the Birth and Growth of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ Movement, by Ramparkash Dua. Published by S. Chand, 1967.
  • Split in a Predominant Party: The ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ in 1969, by Mahendra Prasad Singh. Abhinav Publications, 1981. ISBN 81-7017-140-7.
  • Concise History of the ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, 1885–1947, by B. N. Pande, Nisith Ranjan Ray, Ravinder Kumar, Manmath Nath Das. Published by Vikas Pub. House, 1985. ISBN 0-7069-3020-7.
  • The ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ: An Analytical Biography, by Om P. Gautam. Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985.
  • A Century of ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, 1885–1985, by Pran Nath Chopra, Ram Gopal, Moti Lal Bhargava. Published by Agam Prakashan, 1986.
  • The Congress Ideology and Programme, 1920–1985, by Pitambar Datt Kaushik . Published by Gitanjali Pub. House, 1986. ISBN 81-85060-16-9.
  • Struggling and Ruling: The ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, 1885–1985, by Jim Masselos. Published by Sterling Publishers, 1987.
  • The Encyclopedia of ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, by A. Moin Zaidi, Shaheda Gufran Zaidi, Indian Institute of Applied Political Research. Published by S.Chand, 1987.
  • ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ: A Reconstruction, by Iqbal Singh, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. Published by Riverdale Company, 1988. ISBN 0-913215-32-5.
  • INC, the Glorious Tradition, by A. Moin Zaidi, ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ. AICC. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1989.
  • ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ: A Select Bibliography, by Manikrao Hodlya Gavit, Attar Chand. Published by U.D.H. Pub. House, 1989. ISBN 81-85044-05-8.
  • The Story of Congress PilgrFile: 1885–1985, by A. Moin Zaidi, ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ. Published by Indian Institute of Applied Political Research, 1990. ISBN 81-85355-46-0. (7 vols)
  • ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ in England, by Harish P. Kaushik. Published by Friends Publications, 1991.
  • Women in ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, 1921–1931, by Rajan Mahan. Published by Rawat Publications, 1999.
  • History of ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ, 1885–2002, by Deep Chand Bandhu. Published by Kalpaz Publications, 2003. ISBN 81-7835-090-4.

External links[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:ભારતીય રાષ્ટ્રીય કોંગ્રેસ ઢાંચો:Indian political parties ઢાંચો:India topics ઢાંચો:Use British English