વિકિપીડિયા:સંદિગ્ધ શીર્ષક

વિકિપીડિયાથી
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ઢાંચો:Subcat guideline

ઢાંચો:Guideline list ઢાંચો:Dabnav

Disambiguation in Wikipedia is the process of resolving the conflicts that arise when a single term is ambiguous, and so may refer to more than one topic which Wikipedia covers. For example, the word "Mercury" can refer to an element, a planet, a Roman god, and many other things. There are three important aspects to disambiguation:

  • Naming articles in such a way that each has a unique title. For example, three of the articles dealing with topics ordinarily called "Mercury" are titled Mercury (element), Mercury (planet) and Mercury (mythology).
  • Making the links for ambiguous terms point to the correct article title. For example, an editor of an astronomy article may have created a link to Mercury, and this should be corrected to point to Mercury (planet).
  • Ensuring that a reader who searches for a topic using a particular term can get to the information on that topic quickly and easily, whichever of the possible topics it might be. For example, the page titled Mercury is a disambiguation page – a non-article page which lists the various meanings of "Mercury" and links to the articles which cover them.

Notice that not every ambiguous term needs to have a disambiguation page; if there are only two meanings, then a "hatnote" at the top of one article may be sufficient (as discussed below).

Deciding to disambiguate[ફેરફાર કરો]

Disambiguation is required whenever, for a given word or phrase on which a reader might search, there is more than one existing Wikipedia article to which that word or phrase might be expected to lead. In this situation there must be a way for the reader to navigate quickly from the page that first appears to any of the other possible desired articles.

There are three principal disambiguation scenarios, of which the following are examples:

  • The page at Joker is a disambiguation page, leading to all the alternative uses of "Joker".
  • The page at Rice is about one usage, called the primary topic, and there is a hatnote guiding readers to Rice (disambiguation) to find the other uses.
  • The page at Michael Dobbs is about the primary topic, and there is only one other use. The other use is linked directly using a hatnote; no disambiguation page is needed.

Is there a primary topic?[ફેરફાર કરો]

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Although a term may potentially refer to more than one topic, it is often the case that one of these topics is highly likely – much more likely than any other, and more likely than all the others combined – to be the subject being sought when a reader clicks the "Go" button for that term. If there is such a topic, then it is called the primary topic for that term. If a primary topic exists, the term should be the title of (or redirect to) the article on that topic. If there is no primary topic, the term should be the title of a disambiguation page (or redirect to a different disambiguation page, if more than one term is combined on one page).

An exception may be appropriate if only one of the ambiguous topics is a vital article. In such a case, consensus may determine that the vital article should be treated as the primary topic regardless of whether it is the article most sought by users.

There are no absolute rules for determining which topic is most likely to be sought by readers; decisions are made by discussion between editors, often as a result of a requested move. Tools that may help to support the determination of a primary topic in a discussion, but are not determining factors, include:

For some terms with primary topics the title of the primary topic article may differ from the term itself (as when the article covers a wider topical scope, or is titled differently according to the naming conventions). In this case the term should redirect to the article (or a section of it). For example, the primary topic for "Danzig" is the former German city of that name, but the article on that city is titled Gdańsk. Therefore Danzig redirects to Gdańsk, and the latter page contains a hatnote linking to Danzig (disambiguation).

Disambiguation page or disambiguation links?[ફેરફાર કરો]

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If there are three or more topics associated with the same term, then a disambiguation page should normally be created for that term (in which case disambiguation links may or may not be desirable on the specific topic articles – see below). If only a primary topic and one other topic require disambiguation, then disambiguation links are sufficient, and a disambiguation page is unnecessary. However if there are two topics for a term but neither is considered the primary topic, then a disambiguation page is used.

For more about disambiguation links, see Disambiguation links below. For rules about naming disambiguation pages and combining similar terms on a single page, see Disambiguation pages.

Naming the specific topic articles[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Naming conventions

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For disambiguating specific topic pages by using an unambiguous article title, several options are available:

  1. When there is another term or more complete name (such as Delta rocket instead of Delta) that is equally clear and unambiguous, that may be used.
  2. A disambiguating word or phrase can be added in parentheses. The word or phrase in parentheses should be:
  3. Rarely, an adjective describing the topic can be used, but it is usually better to rephrase such a title to avoid parentheses.
  4. With place-names, if the disambiguating term is a higher-level administrative division, it is often separated using a comma instead of parentheses, as in Windsor, Berkshire. See Naming conventions (geographic names).

If there are several possible choices for disambiguating with a class or context, use the same disambiguating phrase already commonly used for other topics within the same class and context, if any. Otherwise, choose whichever is simpler. For example, use "(mythology)" rather than "(mythological figure)".

If there is a choice between using a short phrase and word with context, such as Mathematical analysis and Analysis (mathematics), there is no hard rule about which is preferred. Both may be created, with one redirecting to the other.

Naming conventions applicable to certain subject areas are listed in the box to the right; these often contain detailed guidance about how to disambiguate. In particular, for articles about people, see the Disambiguating section in the people naming convention.

Format[ફેરફાર કરો]

To conform to the naming conventions, the phrase in parentheses should be treated just as any other word in a title: normally lowercase, unless it is a proper noun (like a book title) that would appear capitalized even in running text.

For common disambiguation words, see સભ્ય:Jarry1250/Findings.

Disambiguation links[ફેરફાર કરો]

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Users searching for what turns out to be an ambiguous term may not reach the article they expected. Therefore any article with an ambiguous title should contain helpful links to alternative Wikipedia articles or disambiguation pages, placed at the top of the article using one of the templates shown below. (Notice that the links are generated automatically, so double square brackets should not be used within the templates.)

In some cases there are different templates available, including or omitting information about the topic of the article. The shorter hatnote may be chosen if omitting the information is not likely to confuse the reader.

On a primary topic page for a term that has one secondary topic only (no disambiguation page):

  • Type {{about|TOPIC|TOPIC 2|ARTICLE (2)}} to produce:
  • Type {{for|TOPIC 2|ARTICLE (2)}} to produce:
  • Type {{see also|ARTICLE (2)}} to produce:

On a secondary topic page for a term that has one other topic only (no disambiguation page):

  • As above, but consider whether the hatnote is really necessary (see the first of the usage guidelines below).

On a primary topic page that has an associated disambiguation page:

  • Type {{about|TOPIC}} to produce:
  • or, if the disambiguation page is not in the default location, type {{otheruses|NAME}} to produce:

When the primary topic redirects to another page:

  • If there is only one secondary topic, type {{redirect|TERM|TOPIC 2|ARTICLE (2)}} on the target page to produce:
  • If there is a disambiguation page, type {{redirect|TERM}} to produce:

Other variations on these templates are available, including templates for specific subjects such as places, numbers, etc. Templates are listed and illustrated at ઢાંચાની ચર્ચા:About and વિકિપીડિયા:Otheruses templates (example usage). A longer list of disambiguation templates is found at વિકિપીડિયા:Template messages/General#Disambiguation and redirection; further style information is given at વિકિપીડિયા:Hatnotes#Templates. Many more templates are listed in Category:Disambiguation and redirection templates.

Usage guidelines[ફેરફાર કરો]

  • There is no need to add disambiguation links to a page whose name already clearly distinguishes itself from the generic term. For example, Solaris (1972 film) is clearly about one specific movie and not about any of the many other meanings of "Solaris". It is very unlikely that someone arriving there from within Wikipedia would have been looking for any other "Solaris", so it is unnecessary to add a link pointing to the Solaris disambiguation page. However, it would be perfectly appropriate to add a link to Solaris (novel) (but not, say, Solaris (operating system)) to its "See also" section.
  • As noted above, disambiguation links should be placed at the top of an article, where they are most visible. For alternatives that are related to the article but are not a source of ambiguity, the "See also" section at the end of the article is more appropriate.
  • Do not pipe disambiguation links. Showing the entire linked article title avoids confusion, which is the reason for the link in the first place.
  • See વિકિપીડિયા:Hatnote for other guidelines on the proper use of disambiguation links.

Disambiguation pages[ફેરફાર કરો]

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Combining terms on disambiguation pages[ફેરફાર કરો]

A single disambiguation page may be used to disambiguate a number of similar terms. Sets of terms which are commonly so combined include:

  • Terms which differ only in capitalization, punctuation and diacritic marks. For example, the terms Oe, Ōe, OE and O.E. are disambiguated on a single page (Oe).
  • Corresponding singular, plural and possessive forms, or compound words. For example, the terms Eaglenest, Eagle Nest, Eagle's Nest and Eagle Nests all appear at Eagle's Nest.
  • Variant spellings. For example, Honor and Honour both appear at Honor (disambiguation).
  • Variant forms of names. For example, Fred Smith also includes persons named Frederick Smith.
  • Terms which differ by the presence or absence of an article (i.e., "a", "an", or "the" in English). For example, Cure (disambiguation) also contains instances of The Cure.

Editorial judgement should be used in deciding whether to combine terms in the ways described above. If a combined disambiguation page would be inconveniently long, it may be better to split the different spellings into separate pages.

When a combined disambiguation page is used, redirects to it (or hatnotes, as appropriate) should be set up from all the terms involved.

Naming the disambiguation page[ફેરફાર કરો]

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The title of a disambiguation page is the ambiguous term itself, provided there is no primary topic for that term. If there is a primary topic, then the tag "(disambiguation)" is added to the name of the disambiguation page, as in Jupiter (disambiguation). It is also acceptable to create a page at "Term ABC (disambiguation)" that redirects to a disambiguation page at "Term ABC". This type of redirect can be used to indicate deliberate links to the disambiguation page.

When a disambiguation page combines several similar terms, one of them must be selected as the title for the page (with the "(disambiguation)" tag added if a primary topic exists for that term); the choice should be made in line with the following principles:

  • A word is preferred to an abbreviation, for example Arm (disambiguation) over ARM.
  • When no word can be formed all capitals is preferred. For example, the disambiguation page for "ddb" is DDB (disambiguation), not "Ddb".
  • English spelling is preferred to that of non-English languages.
  • Singulars are preferred to plurals.
  • The simplest form of the term is preferred to those containing punctuation, diacritics and articles; for example SA is preferred to S.A., and Shadow (disambiguation) is preferred to The Shadow (disambiguation).
  • The spelling that reflects the majority of items on the page is preferred to less common alternatives.

Page style[ફેરફાર કરો]

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Each disambiguation page comprises a list (or multiple lists, for multiple senses of the term in question) of similarly-titled links.

  • Link to the primary topic (if there is one):
A school is an institution for learning.
  • Start each list with a short introductory sentence fragment with the title in bold, and ending with a colon. For example:
Blockbuster may refer to:
  • Try to start each entry in the list with a link to the target page.
  • Each bulleted entry should, in almost every case, have exactly one navigable (blue) link; including more than one link can confuse the reader.
  • Do not pipe the name of the links to the articles being listed. (See exceptions)
  • Include related subject articles only if the term in question is actually described on the target article. (For example, the Canton disambiguation page legitimately has an entry for Flag terminology.)

Include the template {{disambig}} (or other disambiguation template, such as {{Geodis}} or {{Hndis}}) at the bottom as an indicator of the page's status. For more information, see the relevant style guide section.

For a prime example of an actual disambiguation page, see Lift.

What not to include[ફેરફાર કરો]

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Dictionary definitions[ફેરફાર કરો]

A disambiguation page is not a list of dictionary definitions. A short description of the common general meaning of a word can be appropriate for helping the reader determine context. Otherwise, there are templates for linking the reader to Wiktionary, the wiki dictionary; see વિકિપીડિયા:Wikimedia sister projects#Wiktionary.

Partial title matches[ફેરફાર કરો]

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A disambiguation page is not a search index. Do not add a link that merely contains part of the page title, or a link that includes the page title in a longer proper name, where there is no significant risk of confusion. For example, Baltimore Zoo is not included at Zoo (disambiguation) because people outside Baltimore would not readily identify it as the "Zoo", and including all zoos in the world in the disambiguation page is impractical. Add a link only if the article's subject (or the relevant subtopic thereof) could plausibly be referred to by essentially the same name as the disambiguated term in a sufficiently generic context. For instance, the Mississippi River article could not feasibly be titled Mississippi, but it is included at Mississippi (disambiguation) because its subject is often called "the Mississippi".

Sister projects[ફેરફાર કરો]

Disambiguation descriptions should not be created for subjects whose only articles are on pages of sister projects, even if the disambiguation page already exists.

References[ફેરફાર કરો]

Do not include references in disambiguation pages; disambiguation pages are not articles. Incorporate references into the disambiguated articles as needed.

Preparation[ફેરફાર કરો]

Before constructing a new disambiguation page, determine a specific topic name for all existing pages, and the name for the disambiguation page. Move any page with a conflicting title (i.e., the same exact title) to its more specific name. Use the What links here list for the moved page to update pages that link to that page.

Construction[ફેરફાર કરો]

If an article has been moved to make way for the disambiguation page, use the What links here list of the moved page to access the redirect page created by the move, and replace that redirect page with the new disambiguation page.

Use the new disambiguation page to find and replace any old disambiguation links in existing pages with a link to the new disambiguation page.

Note that the standard link templates will actually point to a Term XYZ (disambiguation) version of the new name. Use the red-link on an existing page to create a redirect page marked with the {{R to disambiguation page}} template.

For example, Term XYZ (disambiguation) could be redirected to the new disambiguation page Term XYZ as follows:

#REDIRECT [[Term XYZ]] {{R to disambiguation page}}

Set index articles[ફેરફાર કરો]

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A set index article is a list article about a set of items of a specific type that share the same (or similar) name. For example, Dodge Charger describes a set of cars, List of peaks named Signal Mountain describes a set of mountain peaks, and USS Enterprise describes a set of ships. A set index article is not a disambiguation page, and need not follow the formatting rules for disambiguation pages, however many do by convention. A set index article is meant for information as well as navigation: just like a normal list article, it can have metadata and extra information about each entry. It may contain redlinks to help editors create articles on notable entries.

Fundamentally, a set index article is type of list article. The criteria for creating, adding to, or deleting a set index article should be the same as a stand-alone list. The style of a set index article should follow the style guidelines at વિકિપીડિયા:Stand-alone lists. A set index article can be tagged with {{SIA}}.

Sometimes there will be a disambiguation page and a set index article for the same term. If the disambiguation page carries the name of the term (as with Signal Mountain), then the set index article should be named "List of XXXs named YYY" (as in List of peaks named Signal Mountain). Alternatively, if the set index article is considered the primary topic, it may be named with just the term itself, the disambiguation page being called "YYY (disambiguation)".

For more information about set index articles for ships, see વિકિપીડિયા:WikiProject Ships/Guidelines#Index pages.

Links[ફેરફાર કરો]

Double disambiguation[ફેરફાર કરો]

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A double disambiguation is a link to a disambiguation page from another disambiguation page. This kind of disambiguation is typically more specific than one with a simplified name. This kind of disambiguation is relatively rare on Wikipedia.

For example, Montgomery is a disambiguation page that leads to Montgomery County, a secondary disambiguation page.

Incomplete disambiguation[ફેરફાર કરો]

When a more specific title is still ambiguous, but not enough so to call for double disambiguation, it should redirect back to the main disambiguation page (or a section of it). This aids navigation, and helps editors to avoid creating new articles under the ambiguous title by accident.

Such redirects should be marked with {{R from incomplete disambiguation}} (which places them under Category:Redirects from incomplete disambiguations). For example, Aurora (album) could redirect as follows:

#REDIRECT [[Aurora#Music]]{{R from incomplete disambiguation}}

Interlanguage links[ફેરફાર કરો]

Pure disambiguation pages should contain interlanguage links only where a similar problem of disambiguation exists in the target language; that is, they should not point to a single meaning from the list of meanings, but to another disambiguation page.

Links to disambiguated topics[ફેરફાર કરો]

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A code of honor for creating disambiguation pages is to fix all resulting mis-directed links.

Before moving an article to a qualified name (in order to create a disambiguation page at the base name), click on What links here to find all of the incoming links. Repair all of those incoming links to use the new article name.

When repairing a link, use pipe syntax so that the link does not show the new qualifier. For example, when renaming Topic Name to Topic Name (qualifier), [[Topic Name (qualifier)|Topic Name]] will render as Topic Name just like the original.

A shorter alternative is to use empty pipe syntax, also known as the pipe trick. This allows editors to leave out the piped alternative when editing. For example, typing "[[Topic Name (qualifier)|]]" will automatically produce "[[Topic Name (qualifier)|Topic Name]]". Read મદદ:Pipe trick for more information.

Ambiguous links are periodically checked and repaired, but even if some ambiguous links remain, one of the primary reasons for making a disambiguation page is so that following such links will still be useful to the reader.

There is a tool to facilitate ambiguous link repair in the Python Wikipedia Robot. The bot offers to update links to choices listed on the disambiguation page. Don't forget to seek approval on the વિકિપીડિયા:Bots/Requests for approval page if doing extensive or fast runs.

Links to disambiguation pages[ફેરફાર કરો]

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With very few exceptions, creating links to disambiguation pages is erroneous. Links should instead point to a relevant article. The purpose of a disambiguation page is to give a user who has typed an ambiguous term into the search box a list of articles that are likely to be what he or she is looking for.

When to link to a disambiguation page

The exceptions, when an intentional link to a disambiguation page is appropriate, are:

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Links from one disambiguation page to another for further disambiguation – British has a link to Britain (disambiguation) for further disambiguation.

How to link to a disambiguation page

To link to a disambiguation page (rather than to a page whose topic is a specific meaning), link to the title that includes the text "(disambiguation)", even if that's a redirect – for example, link to the redirect America (disambiguation) rather than the target page at "America". (If the redirect does not yet exist, create it and tag it with {{R to disambiguation page}}.) This helps distinguish accidental links to the disambiguation page from intentional ones.

Redirects to disambiguation pages

The preceding paragraph does not apply to redirects to disambiguation pages for reasons other than signaling intentional links: do not create a double redirect, but make a redirect to the disambiguation page directly (thus Ann Hathaway, a redirect from alternative name, redirects directly to the disambiguation page Anne Hathaway and does not go via the redirect at Anne Hathaway (disambiguation)).

See Category:Redirects to disambiguation pages.

See also[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:Wikipedia policies and guidelines