ઢાંચો:Infobox Prepared Food Sambar or sambhar or Sambaaru or Kolmbo (Tamil:சாம்பார், Konkani:ಕೊಳಮ್ಬೋ( pronounced 'koLmbo' ), Kannada:ಸಾಂಬಾರು, Malayalam: സാമ്പാര്, Telugu:సాంబారు), is a dish common in South India and Sri Lankan Tamil cuisines, made of toor dal .
Sambar is a vegetable stew or chowder based on a broth made with tamarind and toor dal, and is very popular in the cooking of southern regions of India especially in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala
South Indian food, people and culture are inextricably linked to a ubiquitous dish as in idli and sambhar, sambhar and rice and so on. Each state in the South prepares it with a typical variation, adapted to its taste and environment.
The origins of this dish is uncertain.
Toovar dal is cooked until it is crumbled. Tamarind is soaked in water to extract its flavour and then the pulp is discarded. Vegetables, tamarind water, turmeric, salt , asafoetida (a pinch) and a mixture of ground spices known as sambar powder (which contains roasted coriander seeds, chillies, lentils, and other spices) are initially boiled together. After the vegetables and tamarind water are slightly cooked, The dal and ground coconut mixture are added and allowed to cook until the vegetables are done. A wide variety of vegetables may be added to sambar. Typical vegetables include okra, carrot, radish, pumpkin, potatoes, tomatoes, brinjal and whole or halved shallots or onions, but many different vegetables may be used with adequate results. Typically sambar may contain one or several seasonal vegetables as the main vegetables in the soup. Andhra pappu chaaru is prepared the other way round where in vegetables and tamarind pulp are added to the cooked dal and then boiled. This slight variation in the method of cooking them brings in the distinction in their texture and flavour.
The cooked sambar is typically eaten with a garnish, which is an oil-fried spice mixture containing items such mustard seeds, urad dal, dried red chillies, curry leaves, fenugreek seeds, coriander seeds, and asafoetida. Fresh curry leaves or coriander leaves may be added at the very end to enhance the flavor. Curry leaves in particular are an essential element of authentic sambar; their aroma and flavor provide sambar with a distinct and pleasant herbal essence.
Sambar is reflective of a broad and ancient tradition of dal-based vegetable stews in southern India. Many regions and families of the Indian subcontinent have developed and maintained their own adaptations of a dal and vegetable stew, and similar preparations are evident in such dishes known in local languages as rasam, charu, saaru, and pappu pulusu.
Most contain the common elements like toovar dal, tamarind, vegetables, sambar powder, and an oil-fried spice seed seasoning, although the soup can be made to have many different flavors depending on vegetables and selection of spices used.
Common varieties[ફેરફાર કરો]
The taste of the sambar is derived from the spices added to it.
Sambar powder[ફેરફાર કરો]
Typical ingredients of the sambar powder include toor dal, roasted lentils, coriander seeds, dried whole red chili, fenugreek seeds, coriander leaves and curry leaves. Regional variations may include versions with mustard seeds, cumin, black pepper, white pepper, cinnamon, or other spices.
This powder is prepared by pan roasting the whole spices and grinding them to a rather coarse powder with some salt optionally.
Sambhar powder as a ready made masala is available in a wide variety of brands.
Ground coconut[ફેરફાર કરો]
In regions that grow coconuts, notably Kerala, coastal Karnataka, Udupi, Mangalore and Tamil Nadu, sambar is also made with a paste of ground coconuts and spices. Grated coconut is roasted with lentils, cumin, few grains of rice, fenugreek, and red chillies. It is then ground into a fine paste, added to the vegetables and tamarind broth, and then cooked.
Many variants exist depending on the meal of the day, region, and the vegetables used. Sambar without dal (but with vegetables/fish/dry fish etc) is called kuzhambu in Tamil Nadu. There are several varieties of kuzhambu (more kuzhambu, vatha kozhambu, rasavangi, etc). Minor but subtle differences in preparation and ingredients can vary the appearance and taste of the dish.
Sambar is usually served with steamed rice. Sambar with rice is one of the main courses of both formal and everyday south Indian cuisine. In Tamil Nadu, vada sambar and idli sambar are popular for breakfast or lunch, and sambar is often served as a side dish at dinner.
Sambar is also served for lunch and dinner in south India, commonly with idli, vada or dosa, along with two chutneys, a green coconut chutney and a mildly spicy red tomato chutney. Road side restaurants often offer free refills of sambar with reguar purchase of idli and vadas.
A two-course meal, the first consisting of sambar mixed with rice and eaten with some sort of vegetable side dish, and the second consisting of yoghurt mixed with rice, is perhaps one of the most common meals eaten in a typical southern Indian home.
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