ઢાંચો:Cite book

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ઢાંચો:Important This template is used to cite sources in Wikipedia. It is specifically for books. This template replaces the deprecated {{book reference}}. When citing an article in a compilation or anthology, {{cite journal}} works better.

Usage[ફેરફાર કરો]

All field names must be lowercase.

Copy a blank version to use. Remember to use the "|" (pipe) character between each field. Please delete any unused fields to avoid clutter in the edit window.

No templates or magic words are necessary when using an ISBN, OCLC number, or DOI as an identifier. Instead of using the id field in these instances, simply use the appropriate field. For instance, type isbn= followed by the number instead of id=ISBN. Templates are available for other identification number types to be used in the ID field ({{ISSN}}, {{LCCN}}, {{LCC}}, etc.) if these aren't available. See also the complete description of fields.

Full version (copy and paste text below and delete parameters you don't need)
{{cite book |last1= |first1= |authorlink1= |last2= |first2= |editor1-first= |editor1-last= |editor1-link= |others= |title= |trans_title= |url= |format= |accessdate= |edition= |series= |volume= |date= |year= |month= |origyear= |publisher= |location= |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |page= |pages= |trans_chapter= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= |ref= |bibcode= |laysummary= |laydate= |separator= |postscript= |lastauthoramp=}}
Most commonly used fields (use this and you won't have to delete as much)
{{cite book |title= |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |publisher= |location= |isbn= |page= |pages= |url= |accessdate=}}
Example 1

{{cite book |last= Cordell |first= Bruce R. |coauthors= Jeff Grubb, David Yu |title= [[Manual of the Planes]] |publisher= [[Wizards of the Coast]] |year= 2001 |month= September |isbn= 0-7869-1850-8}}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Jeff Grubb, David Yu (September 2001). Manual of the Planes. Wizards of the Coast. ISBN 0-7869-1850-8.

Example 2
{{cite book
  |last = Mumford
  |first = David
  |authorlink = David Mumford
  |title = The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes
  |publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
  |series = Lecture notes in mathematics 1358
  |year = 1999
  |doi = 10.1007/b62130
  |isbn = 354063293X}}

Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. Lecture notes in mathematics 1358. Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X.

Vertical list Prerequisites * Brief instructions
{{cite book
|last=
|first=
|authorlink=
|coauthors=
|firstn=,lastn=
|authorn-link
|editor=
|editorn=
|editorn-last
|editorn-first
|editor-link
|editorn-link
|others=
|title=
|trans_title=
|url=
|format=
|accessdate=
|edition=
|series=
|volume=
|date=
|origyear=
|year=
|month=
|publisher=
|location=
|language=
|isbn=
|oclc=
|doi=
|bibcode=
|id=
|page=
|pages=
|nopp=
|chapter=
|trans_chapter
|chapterurl=
|quote=
|ref=
|laysummary=
|laydate=
|separator= 
|postscript= 
|lastauthoramp=
}}
  
  
 last
 last
 last 
   
 lastn 
  
  
  
 editorn-last
 editor or editor-last
 editorn or editorn-last
  
  
  
  
 url
 url
  
  
  
  
 year or date
  
 year
  
 publisher
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
 page or pages
  
  
 chapter
  
  
  
 laysummary
  
  
 coauthors or >1 lastn
  
   
 (no wikilink)
 (no wikilink)
  
 alternative to first2, last2...first9, last9
 (no wikilink). n=1 through 9
 n=1 through 9
  
 n=1 through 4
 n=1 through 4
 n=1 through 4
 n=1 through 4
 n=1 through 4
  
  
  
 insert url of online version of the book or an extract, if available
  
  
  
  
  
 †preferred (no wikilink)
  
  alternative to date
  
  
  
  
  always include ISBN if one has been assigned
  
  
  
  
  
  
 hides automatic 'p' or 'pp'.
 ‡(no wikilink).  Synonymous with "contribution".
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

† This is the preferred field with its alternates listed below.

‡ If chapterurl is provided then chapter can not have wikilinks.

Fields[ફેરફાર કરો]

Wikilinks[ફેરફાર કરો]

Except where specifically prohibited in the field descriptions below, most fields can be wikilinked (e.g. title = [[book article|book title]]), but should generally only be linked to an existing Wikipedia article. Any wikilinked field must not contain any brackets apart from normal round brackets () — don't use <>[]{}.

Description of fields[ફેરફાર કરો]

Syntax (for the technical-minded)[ફેરફાર કરો]

Nested fields rely on their parent fields:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2 — may be used instead of parent
    • child — may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2 — may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)

Description[ફેરફાર કરો]

  • last: Surname of author. Don't wikilink (use authorlink instead).
    • first: First name(s) of author, including title(s) (e.g. Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Snr.). Don't wikilink (use authorlink instead).
      • The `last' and `first' fields are poorly named for the case of an author whose surname is usually written first (e.g. as in Chinese). They also have the problem of only communicating which is the surname, not communicating where the surname is usually written. Consider deprecating first,last fields, and reinstating author field, using the notation "Smith, John" or "Hu Ke Jie" as appropriate (i.e. always writing surname first, and using comma or not depending on whether the name is usually written surname last or first).
    • authorlink: Title of Wikipedia article about author (not the author's personal website). Article should already exist. Must not be wikilinked itself. Do not use this on its own, but along with author or first and last.
    • coauthors: Full name of additional author or authors, separated by ", " (e.g. Joe Bloggs, John F. Kennedy, H. R. Dent).
      • Whether the surname of the co-authors goes first or last is dependent on the citation style (see the citation style section below) preferred.
  • OR: author: Full name of author, preferably surname first. (deprecated) Don't wikilink (use authorlink instead).
  • OR: for multiple authors, use the fields first1, last1, ...,firstn, lastn to 'correctly' record all the information about the book (the first nine authors are printed, then et al. is appended if even more authors were specified). Don't wikilink as there are corresponding authorlink1, ..., authorlink9 fields as well. This usage is preferred to the use of coauthors.
  • editor: Name of editor/editors. Do not Wikilink any values in the editor field but use editor-link instead. The template automatically adds "ed." after the editor's name unless the chapter parameter is used in which case the template adds "in" before the editor's name which appears after the chapter and before the title. This implies that the author is responsible only for part of the book (including the cited chapter) and the editor responsible for the whole book. If, however, the author(s) and editor(s) are responsible for the whole book, then the editor field or its alternates described below should not be used if the chapter field is being used. Instead, the editor(s) should be included in an author field with possibly "(ed.)" after the surname(s). Alternatively, the editor field may be used if the chapter detail is included in the title field instead of using the chapter field.
  • OR: alternatively editor-first and editor-last can be used in the same way as first and last.
  • OR: for multiple editors up to four in number, use the fields editor1-first, editor1-last, ...,editorn-first, editorn-last to 'correctly' record all the information about the book in the same way as firstn and lastn.
    • editor-link or editor1-link...editorn-link is used in the same way as authorlink or authorlinkn.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, such as "illustrated by Smith" or "trans. Smith".
  • title: Title of book. This is the only required parameter. Can be wikilinked but only to an existing Wikipedia article. Do not use italics.
    • trans_title: If the book cited is in a foreign language, an English translation of the title can be given here. The template will display this in square brackets after the title field and it will point to the url link, if used. Use of language parameter is recommended if this parameter is used.
  • url: URL of an online location where text of the book can be found. Cannot be used if you wikilinked title. If applicable, should point to the specific page(s) referenced. Do not use this field to link to any commercial booksellers (such as Amazon.com). The ISBN link is a much better alternative which allows readers access to the books in their own countries or through their own choice of source, including Amazon, Google Books, thousands of libraries, and more.
    • format: Format, e.g. PDF. HTML implied if not specified.
    • accessdate: Full date when url was accessed. Required when url field is used. Must not be wikilinked.
  • edition: When the book has more than one edition. e.g.: "2nd.", "Revised" etc.. Note that the template automatically displays " ed." after this field, so edition=2nd produces "2nd ed.".
  • series: When the book is part of a series of publications
  • volume: For one book published in several volumes. However, this template displays the text in this field in bold type after the title and series parameters. An alternative is to include the volume information in the title field after the main title (see example below). (NB: there is a separate {{Cite encyclopedia}} template).
  • date: Full date of publication edition being referenced, in the same format as the main text of the article. Must not be wikilinked.
  • OR: year: Year of publication edition being referenced
    • month: Name of the month of publication. If you also have the day, use date instead. Must not be wikilinked.
    • origyear: Original publication year, for display alongside the date or year. For clarity, please specify as much information as possible, for instance origyear=First published 1859 or origyear=Composed 1904. This parameter only displays if a there is a value for year or date.
  • publisher: Publisher should not include corporate designation such as "Ltd" or "Inc".
    • location: Geographical place of publication.
  • language: The language the book is written in, if it is not English. The template automatically puts parentheses around the text and adds "in" before the language name.
  • isbn: International Standard Book Number such as 1-111-22222-9. Note that |isbn=, like all field names, must be in lowercase. The field must not be wikilinked as the template automatically creates a link. The template is insensitive to formatting so an ISBN number without dashes ("-") may be used (e.g.isbn=1111222229). More information about this feature and its advantages is available at Wikipedia:ISBN.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581. The field must not be wikilinked as the template automatically creates a link.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001. The field must not be wikilinked as the template automatically creates a link.
  • bibcode: A nineteen character Bibcode identifier. The field must not be wikilinked as the template automatically creates a link.
  • id: A unique identifier, used if none of the above are applicable. In this case, you need to specify the kind of identifier you are using, preferably with a template like {{ASIN}} or {{ISSN}}. (Use one of the more specialized parameters if possible; they are linked automatically. In other words, don't use id = ISBN 1-111-22222-9 anymore. Use isbn = 1-111-22222-9.)
  • pages or page: "|pages= 5–7" produces "pp. 5–7", while "|page= 5" produces "p. 5". The "pp." notation indicating multiple pages, and "p." notation indicating a single page, are placed automatically when you choose between the plural (pages) or singular (page) form of the parameter. These parameters are for listing the pages relevant to the citation, not the total number of pages in the book.
    • nopp: using "page" or "pages", automatically places the p. or pp. notations. If this is inappropriate—for instance, if page=Front cover, placing any value after nopp (e.g. nopp=y will hide the p. or pp. notation.
  • chapter (= contribution): The chapter of the book, written in full. Punctuation other than quotes should be included in the value passed to the parameter, e.g. chapter = Meet Dick and Jane. produces "Meet Dick and Jane." ahead of title.
    • trans_chapter: Acts in the same way as trans_title. The field will be displayed in square brackets within the quotation marks which embrace the chapter field. Use of language parameter is recommended if this parameter is used.
    • chapterurl: URL of an individual chapter of online book. Should be at the same site as url, if any.
  • quote: Relevant quote from the book.
  • ref: use this parameter to make the reference linkable. The template places the field variable after a # to create a hyperlink (the fragment identifier) to the citation. Such a linkable reference can be made the target of wikilinks to full references, especially useful in short citations like shortened notes and author-date referencing. See "Wikilinks to full references" in Examples below for using the ref field in citation templates in conjunction with short <ref>...</ref> citations.
  • laysummary: Link to a non-technical summary (or review) of the book
    • laydate: Date of summary
  • separator: The separator to use in lists of authors, editors, etc. Defaults to ".", but "," may be useful also.
  • postscript: The closing punctuation for the citation. Defaults to ".", but "" may be useful also.
  • lastauthoramp: The separator to use between the last two names in lists of authors. Defaults to "", but "&" may be useful as well.

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

Just a title
* {{cite book | title=Mysterious book }}
  • Mysterious book.
Year and title
* {{cite book | title=Mysterious book | year=1901 }}
  • Mysterious book. 1901.
Basic usage
* {{cite book | first=Joe | last=Bloggs | authorlink=Joe Bloggs | year=1974 | title=Book of Bloggs }}
Basic usage with url
* {{cite book | last=Bloggs | first=Joe | authorlink=Joe Bloggs | year=1974 | title=Book of Bloggs | edition=1st | url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ | accessdate=2006-02-17 }}
Citing a chapter in a book with different authors for different chapters and an editor
* {{cite book |last=Bloggs | first=Fred |editor-first=John| editor-last=Doe |title=Big Compilation Book With Many Chapters and distinct chapter authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=2001-01-01 |pages=100-110 |chapter=Chapter 2: The History Of The Bloggs Family |isbn=1234567890}}
  • Bloggs, Fred (2001-01-01). "Chapter 2: The History Of The Bloggs Family". In Doe, John. Big Book With Many Chapters and distinct chapter authors. Book Publishers. pp. 100-110. ISBN 1234567890.
Citing a chapter in a book with two joint authors and an editor
* {{cite book |last1=Bloggs | first1=Joe| last2=Egg| first2=Fred| first3=John (ed.)| last3=Doe |title=Big Book With Many Chapters and two co-authors |publisher=Book Publishers |date=2001-01-01 ||origyear=1st. Pub. 1986|pages=100-110 |chapter=Chapter 6: Getting There| chapterurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/ |isbn=1234567890| lastauthoramp=y}}
Three authors, title with a piped wikilink, edition
* {{cite book | last1=Bloggs | first1=Joe | authorlink=Joe Bloggs | first2=John | last2=Smith | first3=Jim | last3=Smythe | title=[[A Thousand Acres|1000 Acres]] | edition=2nd }}
Complex usage showing effect of using volume parameter and lastauthoramp parameter
Without volume and lastauthoramp parameters:
*{{cite book|first1=Major-General I.S.O.| last1=Playfair| authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair| first2=Commander G.M.S| last2=Stitt| first3=Brigadier C.J.C.| last3=Molony| first4=Air Vice-Marshal S.E.| last4=Toomer| editor-first=J.R.M| editor-last=Butler| series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series| title=Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941)| publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK|year=2007| origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:1954| isbn=1-845740-65-3}}
  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Stitt, Commander G.M.S; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; Toomer, Air Vice-Marshall S.E. (2007) [1st. pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. Mediterranean and Middle East. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3.
With volume and last authoramp parameters:
*{{cite book|first1=Major-General I.S.O.| last1=Playfair| authorlink1=Ian Stanley Ord Playfair| first2=Commander G.M.S| last2=Stitt| first3=Brigadier C.J.C.| last3=Molony| first4=Air Vice-Marshall S.E.| last4=Toomer| editor-first=J.R.M| editor-last=Butler| series=History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series| title=Mediterranean and Middle East|volume=Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941)| publisher=Naval & Military Press |location=Uckfield, UK|year=2007| origyear=1st. pub. [[HMSO]]:1954| isbn=1-845740-65-3|lastauthoramp=y}}
  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Stitt, Commander G.M.S; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C. & Toomer, Air Vice-Marshall S.E. (2007) [1st. pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, J.R.M. ed. Mediterranean and Middle East. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy (to May 1941). Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-65-3.
Date without day, wikilinked title and publisher, id, pages, location
* {{cite book | last=Cordell | first=Bruce R. | coauthors=Jeff Grubb, David Noonan | year=2001 | month=September | title=[[Manual of the Planes]] | publisher=[[Wizards of the Coast]] | location=Timbuktu | isbn=0-7869-1850-8 | pages= 134-137 }}
Other language
* {{cite book | last=Bloggs | first=Joe | year=1974 | title=Book of Bloggs | edition=1st | language=German | url=http://en.wikipedia.org/ | accessdate=2006-02-17 }}
Using a DOI
*{{cite book |last=Mumford |first=David |authorlink=David Mumford |year=1999 |title=The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes: Includes the Michigan Lectures (1974) on Curves and Their Jacobians |edition=2nd |publisher=[[Springer-Verlag]] |doi=10.1007/b62130 |isbn=354063293X }}
Wikilinks to full references
As mentioned, the bibliographical data of the cited source can be “tagged” by an identifier: this enables the system to “find” the target of the wikilinks. This “tagging” with an identifier can be done by enclosing between <cite id=…>…</cite> tags, but this tool can be superfluous if the bibliographical data are provided with a citation template: the ref field of the chosen citation template must be set to the same name.
Wikilink example edit:

Shamans may fulfill multiple functions, including healing, curing infertile women, and securing the success of hunts.<ref>[[#Mer85|Merkur 1985]]: 4</ref>

== Notes ==

{{reflist|2}}

== References ==

* {{cite book |last=Merkur |first=Daniel |year=1985 |title=Becoming Half Hidden: Shamanism and Initiation among the Inuit |publisher=Almqvist & Wiksell |location=Stockholm |isbn=91-22-00752-0 |ref=Mer85}}

Example rendered result:

Shamans may fulfill multiple functions, including healing, curing infertile women, and securing the success of hunts.[1]

Notes



References


  • Merkur, Daniel (1985). Becoming Half Hidden: Shamanism and Initiation among the Inuit. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 91-22-00752-0.
Attention must be paid: not all other citation templates support this. In such cases, the service can be achieved also by enclosing the concerned bibliographical item inside <cite id=…>…</cite> tags: also this way, it can feature as a target of Wikilinks to full references. The id attribute of the tag must be set to the same name what we would give to the (lacking) ref field of the citation template.

Testing[ફેરફાર કરો]

See Template:cite book/regression tests.

Note[ફેરફાર કરો]

Note the extra full-stop when the last author ends with an initial, and there is no date:

  • Invisible, M.. Mysterious book.

We don't know of a practical solution to this — unless there is a way to test the characters of a field?

Citation styles[ફેરફાર કરો]

Established citation styles for coauthors:

  • MLA style: Last, First and First Last. "If there are more than three authors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al."
  • APA style: Last, F. & Last, F.
  • Chicago Manual of Style: Last, First, and First Last.
  • Turabian: same as Chicago Reference List, above.
  • Harvard: Last, F., Last, F. & Last, F.

COinS[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:UF-COinS

Tools[ફેરફાર કરો]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Tools for a list of tools which can help create a reference in the 'cite book' format.

See also[ફેરફાર કરો]