ગુરુના ચંદ્રો

વિકિપીડિયાથી
આના પર જાવ: ભ્રમણ, શોધો
ગુરુ અને તેનાં ચાર મોટા ચંદ્રો

ગુરુનો ગ્રહ કુલ ૬૭ ઉપગ્રહો ધરાવે છે, જેને 'ગુરુના ચંદ્રો' તરીકે પણ ઓળખવામાં આવે છે, કેમકે પૃથ્વીના ઉપગ્રહને આપણે ચંદ્ર કહીએ છીએ.

ચંદ્રો અને વિગતો[ફેરફાર કરો]

The moons of Jupiter are listed below by orbital period. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in bold. These are the four Galilean moons, which are comparable in size to Earth's Moon. The four inner moons are much smaller. The irregular captured moons are shaded light gray when prograde and dark gray when retrograde.

ક્રમ
[note ૧]
લેબલ (વર્ગ)
[note ૨]
નામ
ઉચ્ચાર
(key)
છબી વ્યાસ
(km)[note ૩]
દળ
(×૧૦16 kg)
અર્ધ મુખ્ય
ધરી

(કિ.મી.)[૧]
ભ્રમણ સમય
(દિવસ)[૧][note ૪]
ત્રાંસ
(°)[૧]
ઉત્કેન્દ્રતા
[૨]
શોધ
વર્ષ
[૩]
શોધક[૩] સમુદાય
[note ૫]
XVI મીટિસ ˈmiːtɨs
Metis.jpg
60 × 40 × 34 ≈ 3.6 127690 +7h 4m 29s 0.06°[૪] 0.00002 1979 Synnott
(Voyager 1)
Inner
XV ઍડ્રાસ્ટીયા ædrəˈstiːə
Adrastea.jpg
20 × 16 × 14 ≈ 0.2 128690 +7h 9m 30s 0.03°[૪] 0.0015 1979 Jewitt
(Voyager 2)
Inner
V ઍમાલ્થીયા æməlˈθiːə
Amalthea PIA02532.png
250 × 146 × 128
(167±4.0)
208 181366 +11h 57m 23s 0.374°[૪] 0.0032 1892 Barnard Inner
XIV થીબી ˈθiːbiː
Thebe.jpg
116 × 98 × 84 ≈ 43 221889 +16h 11m 17s 1.076°[૪] 0.0175 1979 Synnott
(Voyager 1)
Inner
I આઈઓ ˈaɪ.oʊ
Io highest resolution true color.jpg
3660.0
× 3637.4
× 3630.6
8931900 421700 +1.7691 0.050°[૪] 0.0041 1610 Galilei Galilean
II યુરોપા jʊˈroʊpə
Europa-moon.jpg
3121.6 4800000 671034 +3.5512 0.471°[૪] 0.0094 1610 Galilei Galilean
III ગૅનીમીડ ˈɡænɨmiːd
Ganymede g1 true 2.jpg
5262.4 14819000 1070412 +7.1546 0.204°[૪] 0.0011 1610 Galilei Galilean
IV કેલિસ્ટો kəˈlɪstoʊ
Callisto.jpg
4820.6 10759000 1882709 +16.689 0.205°[૪] 0.0074 1610 Galilei Galilean
XVIII થેમિસ્ટો θɨˈmɪstoʊ 8 0.069 7393216 +129.87 45.762° 0.2115 1975/2000 Kowal & Roemer/
Sheppard et al.
Themisto
૧૦ XIII લીડા ˈliːdə 16 0.6 11187781 +240.82 27.562° 0.1673 1974 Kowal Himalia
૧૧ VI હિમાલિયા haɪˈmeɪliə
Himalia from New Horizons.jpg
170 670 11451971 +250.23 30.486° 0.1513 1904 Perrine Himalia
૧૨ X Lysithea laɪˈsɪθiːə 36 6.3 11740560 +259.89 27.006° 0.1322 1938 Nicholson Himalia
૧૩ VII Elara ˈɛlərə
Elara2-LB1-mag17.jpg
86 87 11778034 +257.62 29.691° 0.1948 1905 Perrine Himalia
૧૪ S/2000 J 11 4 0.0090 12570424 +287.93 27.584° 0.2058 2001 Sheppard et al. Himalia?
૧૫ XLVI Carpo ˈkɑrpoʊ 3 0.0045 17144873 +458.62 56.001° 0.2735 2003 Sheppard et al. Carpo
૧૬ S/2003 J 12 1 0.00015 17739539 −482.69 142.680° 0.4449 2003 Sheppard et al. ?
૧૭ XXXIV Euporie juːˈpɒrɨ.iː 2 0.0015 19088434 −538.78 144.694° 0.0960 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૧૮ S/2003 J 3 2 0.0015 19621780 −561.52 146.363° 0.2507 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૧૯ S/2003 J 18 2 0.0015 19812577 −569.73 147.401° 0.1569 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
૨૦ S/2011 J 1 1 20155290 −582.22 162.8° 0.2963 2011 Sheppard et al. ?
૨૧ S/2010 J 2 1 20307150 −588.36 150.4° 0.307 2010 Veillet Ananke?
૨૨ XLII Thelxinoe θɛlkˈsɪnɵʊiː 2 0.0015 20453753 −597.61 151.292° 0.2684 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૨૩ XXXIII Euanthe juːˈænθiː 3 0.0045 20464854 −598.09 143.409° 0.2000 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૨૪ XLV Helike ˈhɛlɨkiː 4 0.0090 20540266 −601.40 154.586° 0.1374 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૨૫ XXXV Orthosie ɔrˈθɒsɨ.iː 2 0.0015 20567971 −602.62 142.366° 0.2433 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૨૬ XXIV Iocaste aɪ.ɵˈkæstiː 5 0.019 20722566 −609.43 147.248° 0.2874 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૨૭ S/2003 J 16 2 0.0015 20743779 −610.36 150.769° 0.3184 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
૨૮ XXVII Praxidike prækˈsɪdɨkiː 7 0.043 20823948 −613.90 144.205° 0.1840 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૨૯ XXII Harpalyke hɑrˈpælɨkiː 4 0.012 21063814 −624.54 147.223° 0.2440 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૩૦ XL Mneme ˈniːmiː 2 0.0015 21129786 −627.48 149.732° 0.3169 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
૩૧ XXX Hermippe hərˈmɪpiː 4 0.0090 21182086 −629.81 151.242° 0.2290 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke?
૩૨ XXIX Thyone θaɪˈoʊniː 4 0.0090 21405570 −639.80 147.276° 0.2525 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
૩૩ XII Ananke əˈnæŋkiː 28 3.0 21454952 −640.38 151.564° 0.3445 1951 Nicholson Ananke
૩૪ L Herse ˈhɜrsiː 2 0.0015 22134306 −672.75 162.490° 0.2379 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
૩૫ XXXI Aitne ˈaɪtniː 3 0.0045 22285161 −679.64 165.562° 0.3927 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
36 XXXVII Kale ˈkeɪliː 2 0.0015 22409207 −685.32 165.378° 0.2011 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
37 XX Taygete teɪˈɪdʒɨtiː 5 0.016 22438648 −686.67 164.890° 0.3678 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
38 S/2003 J 19 2 0.0015 22709061 −699.12 164.727° 0.1961 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
39 XXI Chaldene kælˈdiːniː 4 0.0075 22713444 −699.33 167.070° 0.2916 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
40 S/2003 J 15 2 0.0015 22720999 −699.68 141.812° 0.0932 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke?
41 S/2003 J 10 2 0.0015 22730813 −700.13 163.813° 0.3438 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme?
42 S/2003 J 23 2 0.0015 22739654 −700.54 148.849° 0.3930 2004 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
43 XXV Erinome ɨˈrɪnɵmiː 3 0.0045 22986266 −711.96 163.737° 0.2552 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
44 XLI Aoede eɪˈiːdiː 4 0.0090 23044175 −714.66 160.482° 0.6011 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
45 XLIV Kallichore kəˈlɪkɵriː 2 0.0015 23111823 −717.81 164.605° 0.2041 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme?
46 XXIII Kalyke ˈkælɨkiː 5 0.019 23180773 −721.02 165.505° 0.2139 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
47 XI Carme ˈkɑrmiː 46 13 23197992 −763.95 165.047° 0.2342 1938 Nicholson Carme
48 XVII Callirrhoe kəˈlɪrɵʊiː
S1999j1.jpg
9 0.087 23214986 −727.11 139.849° 0.2582 2000 Spahr, Scotti Pasiphaë
49 XXXII Eurydome jʊˈrɪdəmiː 3 0.0045 23230858 −723.36 149.324° 0.3769 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë?
50 S/2011 J 2 1 23329710 −725.06 151.8° 0.3867 2011 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë?
51 XXXVIII Pasithee pəˈsɪθɨ.iː 2 0.0015 23307318 −726.93 165.759° 0.3288 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
52 S/2010 J 1 2 23314335 −722.83 163.2° 0.320 2010 Jacobson et al. Pasiphaë?
53 XLIX Kore ˈkɔəriː 2 0.0015 23345093 −776.02 137.371° 0.1951 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
54 XLVIII Cyllene sɨˈliːniː 2 0.0015 23396269 −731.10 140.148° 0.4115 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
55 XLVII Eukelade juːˈkɛlədiː 4 0.0090 23483694 −735.20 163.996° 0.2828 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
56 S/2003 J 4 2 0.0015 23570790 −739.29 147.175° 0.3003 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
57 VIII Pasiphaë pəˈsɪfeɪ.iː 60 30 23609042 −739.80 141.803° 0.3743 1908 Melotte Pasiphaë
58 XXXIX Hegemone hɨˈdʒɛməniː 3 0.0045 23702511 −745.50 152.506° 0.4077 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
59 XLIII Arche ˈɑrkiː 3 0.0045 23717051 −746.19 164.587° 0.1492 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
60 XXVI Isonoe aɪˈsɒnɵʊiː 4 0.0075 23800647 −750.13 165.127° 0.1775 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
61 S/2003 J 9 1 0.00015 23857808 −752.84 164.980° 0.2761 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
62 S/2003 J 5 4 0.0090 23973926 −758.34 165.549° 0.3070 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
63 IX Sinope sɨˈnoʊpiː 38 7.5 24057865 −739.33 153.778° 0.2750 1914 Nicholson Pasiphaë
64 XXXVI Sponde ˈspɒndiː 2 0.0015 24252627 −771.60 154.372° 0.4431 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
65 XXVIII Autonoe ɔːˈtɒnɵʊiː 4 0.0090 24264445 −772.17 151.058° 0.3690 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
66 XIX Megaclite mɛɡəˈklaɪtiː 5 0.021 24687239 −792.44 150.398° 0.3077 2001 Sheppard et al. Pasiphaë
67 S/2003 J 2 2 0.0015 30290846 −1077.02 153.521° 0.1882 2003 Sheppard et al. ?

નોંધ[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. Order refers to the position among other moons with respect to their average distance from Jupiter.
  2. Label refers to the Roman numeral attributed to each moon in order of their naming.
  3. Diameters with multiple entries such as "60 × 40 × 34" reflect that the body is not a perfect spheroid and that each of its dimensions have been measured well enough.
  4. Periods with negative values are retrograde.
  5. "?" refers to group assignments that are not considered sure yet.

સંદર્ભો[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. ૧.૦ ૧.૧ ૧.૨ "Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service". IAU: Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2011-01-08. "Note: some semi-major axis were computed using the µ value, while the eccentricities were taken using the inclination to the local Laplace plane" 
  2. Sheppard, Scott S. "Jupiter's Known Satellites". Departament of Terrestrial Magnetism at Carniege Institution for science. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  3. ૩.૦ ૩.૧ "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN). U.S. Geological Survey. 2008-11-07. Retrieved 2008-08-02. 
  4. ૪.૦ ૪.૧ ૪.૨ ૪.૩ ૪.૪ ૪.૫ ૪.૬ ૪.૭ Siedelmann P.K.; Abalakin V.K.; Bursa, M.; Davies, M.E.; de Bergh, C.; Lieske, J.H.; Obrest, J.; Simon, J.L.; Standish, E.M.; Stooke, P. ; Thomas, P.C. (2000). The Planets and Satellites 2000 (Report). IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites. http://www.hnsky.org/iau-iag.htm. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 2008-08-31.