ઢાંચો:Physical constants

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(ઢાંચો:Physconst થી અહીં વાળેલું)
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This template provides easy inclusion of recent values of physical constants in articles. Presently, it returns CODATA 2018 recommended values, but the template will be updated when more recent values become available. This includes the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, which made the values of several constants exact (e.g. e), whereas some previously exactly defined constants acquired an uncertainty (e.g. μ0).

Usage[ફેરફાર કરો]

Arguments[ફેરફાર કરો]

symbol
If set to yes, the value is preceded by the symbol of the constant, followed by or = depending on whether or not round is set.
round
If omitted, the value is shown along with its standard uncertainty. If set to an integer n, the value is rounded to the first n digits after the decimal point (retaining trailing zeros).
unit
If set to no, the unit of measurement is not shown.
ref
If set to no, no reference is given. If set to only, only the reference is given.
after
Text (e.g. punctuation) to be shown after the constant before the reference.
runc
If set to yes, this will provide only the relative standard uncertainty of the value and its reference.

Available constants[ફેરફાર કરો]

Code Constant Value Relative standard uncertainty
a0 Bohr radius a0 = 5.29177210903(80)×10−11 m ur(a0) = 1.5×10−10[૧]
alpha fine-structure constant α = 7.2973525693(11)×10−3 ur(α) = 1.5×10−10[૨]
A90 conventional ampere A90 = 1.00000008887... A ur(A90) = 0[૩]
atm standard atmosphere atm = 101325 Pa ur(atm) = 0[૪]
bwien Wien wavelength displacement law constant b = 2.897771955...×10−3 m⋅K ur(b) = 0[૫]
bwien' Wien frequency displacement law constant b′ = 5.878925757...×1010 Hz⋅K−1 ur(b′) = 0[૬]
c speed of light c = 299792458 m/s ur(c) = 0[૭]
c1 first radiation constant c1 = 3.741771852...×10−16 W⋅m2 ur(c1) = 0[૮]
c1L first radiation constant for spectral radiance c1L = 1.191042972...×10−16 W⋅m2⋅sr−1 ur(c1L) = 0[૯]
c2 second radiation constant c2 = 1.438776877...×10−2 m⋅K ur(c2) = 0[૧૦]
C90 conventional coulomb C90 = 1.00000008887... C ur(C90) = 0[૧૧]
DnuCs hyperfine structure transition frequency of caesium-133 Δν(133Cs)hfs = 9192631770 Hz urν(133Cs)hfs) = 0[૧૨]
e elementary charge e = 1.602176634×10−19 C ur(e) = 0[૧૩]
Eh Hartree energy Eh = 4.3597447222071(85)×10−18 J ur(Eh) = 1.9×10−12[૧૪]
EheV Hartree energy in eV Eh = 27.211386245988(53) eV ur(Eh) = 1.9×10−12[૧૫]
eps0 vacuum electric permittivity ε0 = 8.8541878128(13)×10−12 F⋅m−1 ur(ε0) = 1.5×10−10[૧૬]
eV electronvolt eV = 1.602176634×10−19 J ur(eV) = 0[૧૭]
F Faraday constant F = 96485.33212... C⋅mol−1 ur(F) = 0[૧૮]
F90 conventional farad F90 = 0.99999998220... F ur(F90) = 0[૧૯]
G gravitational constant G = 6.67430(15)×10−11 m3⋅kg−1⋅s−2 ur(G) = 2.2×10−5[૨૦]
G0 conductance quantum G0 = 7.748091729...×10−5 S ur(G0) = 0[૨૧]
g0 standard acceleration of gravity g0 = 9.80665 m⋅s−2 ur(g0) = 0[૨૨]
ge electron g-factor ge = ઢાંચો:FormattingError ur(ge) = 1.7×10−13[૨૩]
GF/hbarc3 Fermi coupling constant GF/ħc3 = 1.1663787(6)×10−5 GeV−2 ur(GF/ħc3) = 5.1×10−7[૨૪]
gmu muon g-factor gμ = −2.0023318418(13) ur(gμ) = 6.3×10−10[૨૫]
gp proton g-factor gp = 5.5856946893(16) ur(gp) = 2.9×10−10[૨૬]
h Planck constant h = 6.62607015×10−34 J⋅s ur(h) = 0[૨૭]
H90 conventional henry H90 = 1.00000001779... H ur(H90) = 0[૨૮]
hbar reduced Planck constant ħ = 1.054571817...×10−34 J⋅s ur(ħ) = 0[૨૯]
h/2me quantum of circulation h/2me = 3.6369475516(11)×10−4 m2⋅s−1 ur(h/2me) = 3.0×10−10[૩૦]
invalpha inverse fine-structure constant 1/α = 137.035999084(21) ur(1/α) = 1.5×10−10[૩૧]
invG0 inverse conductance quantum G0−1 = 12906.40372... Ω ur(G0−1) = 0[૩૨]
k Boltzmann constant k = 1.380649×10−23 J⋅K−1 ur(k) = 0[૩૩]
KJ Josephson constant KJ = 483597.8484...×109 Hz⋅V−1 ur(KJ) = 0[૩૪]
KJ90 conventional value of Josephson constant KJ-90 = 483597.9×109 Hz⋅V−1 ur(KJ-90) = 0[૩૫]
lP Planck length lP = 1.616255(18)×10−35 m ur(lP) = 1.1×10−5[૩૬]
MC12 molar mass of carbon-12 M(12C) = 11.9999999958(36)×10−3 kg⋅mol−1 ur(M(12C)) = 3.0×10−10[૩૭]
me electron mass me = 9.1093837015(28)×10−31 kg ur(me) = 3.0×10−10[૩૮]
mmu muon mass mμ = 1.883531627(42)×10−28 kg ur(mμ) = 2.2×10−8[૩૯]
mn neutron mass mn = 1.67492749804(95)×10−27 kg ur(mn) = 5.7×10−10[૪૦]
mnDa neutron mass in daltons mn = 1.00866491595(49) Da ur(mn) = 3.8×10−10[૪૧]
mP Planck mass mP = 2.176435(24)×10−8 kg ur(mP) = 1.1×10−5[૪૨]
mp proton mass mp = 1.67262192369(51)×10−27 kg ur(mp) = 3.1×10−10[૪૩]
mpome proton-to-electron mass ratio mp/me = 1836.15267343(11) ur(mp/me) = 6.0×10−11[૪૪]
mtau tau mass mτ = 3.16754(21)×10−27 kg ur(mτ) = 6.8×10−5[૪૫]
Mu molar mass constant Mu = 0.99999999965(30)×10−3 kg⋅mol−1 ur(Mu) = 3.0×10−10[૪૬]
mu atomic mass constant mu = 1.66053906660(50)×10−27 kg ur(mu) = 3.0×10−10[૪૭]
muc2 atomic mass constant energy equivalent muc2 = 1.49241808560(45)×10−10 J ur(muc2) = 3.0×10−10[૪૮]
mueV atomic mass constant energy equivalent in MeV muc2 = 931.49410242(28) MeV ur(muc2) = 3.0×10−10[૪૯]
mu0 vacuum magnetic permeability μ0 = 1.25663706212(19)×10−6 N⋅A−2 ur(μ0) = 1.5×10−10[૫૦]
muB Bohr magneton μB = 9.2740100783(28)×10−24 J⋅T−1 ur(μB) = 3.0×10−10[૫૧]
muN nuclear magneton μN = 5.0507837461(15)×10−27 J⋅T−1 ur(μN) = 3.1×10−10[૫૨]
NA Avogadro constant NA = 6.02214076×1023 mol−1 ur(NA) = 0[૫૩]
NAh molar Planck constant NAh = 3.990312712...×10−10 J⋅Hz−1⋅mol−1 ur(NAh) = 0[૫૪]
ohm90 conventional ohm Ω90 = 1.00000001779... Ω ur(Ω90) = 0[૫૫]
Phi0 magnetic flux quantum Φ0 = 2.067833848...×10−15 Wb ur(Φ0) = 0[૫૬]
R gas constant R = 8.314462618... J⋅mol−1⋅K−1 ur(R) = 0[૫૭]
re classical electron radius re = 2.8179403262(13)×10−15 m ur(re) = 4.5×10−10[૫૮]
Rinf Rydberg constant R = 10973731.568160(21) m−1 ur(R) = 1.9×10−12[૫૯]
RK von Klitzing constant RK = 25812.80745... Ω ur(RK) = 0[૬૦]
RK90 conventional value of von Klitzing constant RK-90 = 25812.807 Ω ur(RK-90) = 0[૬૧]
sigma Stefan–Boltzmann constant σ = 5.670374419...×10−8 W⋅m−2⋅K−4 ur(σ) = 0[૬૨]
sigmae Thomson cross section σe = 6.6524587321(60)×10−29 m2 ur(σe) = 9.1×10−10[૬૩]
TP Planck temperature TP = 1.416785(16)×1032 K ur(TP) = 1.1×10−5[૬૪]
tP Planck time tP = 5.391245(60)×10−44 s ur(tP) = 1.1×10−5[૬૫]
V90 conventional volt V90 = 1.00000010666... V ur(V90) = 0[૬૬]
VmSi molar volume of silicon Vm(Si) = 1.205883199(60)×10−5 m3⋅mol−1 ur(Vm(Si)) = 4.9×10−8[૬૭]
W90 conventional watt W90 = 1.00000019553... W ur(W90) = 0[૬૮]
Z0 characteristic impedance of vacuum Z0 = 376.730313667(57) Ω ur(Z0) = 1.5×10−10[૬૯]

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{Physical constants|c|unit=no|after= [[metre per second|metres per second]].}}

299792458 metres per second.[૭]

{{Physical constants|mu0|symbol=yes}}

μ0 = 1.25663706212(19)×10−6 N⋅A−2[૫૦]

{{Physical constants|G|symbol=yes}}

G = 6.67430(15)×10−11 m3⋅kg−1⋅s−2[૨૦]

{{Physical constants|hbar|round=2|symbol=yes}}

ħ ≈ 1.05×10−34 J⋅s[૨૯]

The relative standard uncertainty of ''m''<sub>u</sub> is {{Physical constants|mu|runc=yes|after=.}}

The relative standard uncertainty of mu is 3.0×10−10.[૪૭]

For the electron mass, {{Physical constants|me|runc=yes|symbol=yes|ref=no}}.

For the electron mass, ur(me) = 3.0×10−10.

NIST publishes the CODATA value of the [[elementary charge]].{{Physical constants|e|ref=only}}

NIST publishes the CODATA value of the elementary charge.[૧૩]

See also[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{CODATA2010}}

References[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. "2018 CODATA Value: Bohr radius". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  2. "2018 CODATA Value: fine-structure constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  3. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of ampere-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  4. "2018 CODATA Value: standard atmosphere". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  5. "2018 CODATA Value: Wien wavelength displacement law constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  6. "2018 CODATA Value: Wien frequency displacement law constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  7. ૭.૦ ૭.૧ "2018 CODATA Value: speed of light in vacuum". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  8. "2018 CODATA Value: first radiation constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  9. "2018 CODATA Value: first radiation constant for spectral radiance". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  10. "2018 CODATA Value: second radiation constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  11. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of coulomb-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  12. "2018 CODATA Value: hyperfine transition frequency of Cs-133". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-18. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  13. ૧૩.૦ ૧૩.૧ "2018 CODATA Value: elementary charge". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  14. "2018 CODATA Value: Hartree energy". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  15. "2018 CODATA Value: Hartree energy in eV". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-09-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  16. "2018 CODATA Value: vacuum electric permittivity". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  17. "2018 CODATA Value: electron volt". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  18. "2018 CODATA Value: Faraday constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  19. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of farad-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  20. ૨૦.૦ ૨૦.૧ "2018 CODATA Value: Newtonian constant of gravitation". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  21. "2018 CODATA Value: conductance quantum". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  22. "2018 CODATA Value: standard acceleration of gravity". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  23. "2018 CODATA Value: electron g factor". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  24. "2018 CODATA Value: Fermi coupling constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  25. "2018 CODATA Value: muon g factor". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  26. "2018 CODATA Value: proton g factor". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. June 2015. Retrieved 2019-03-08. Check date values in: |accessdate= (મદદ)
  27. "2018 CODATA Value: Planck constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  28. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of henry-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  29. ૨૯.૦ ૨૯.૧ "2018 CODATA Value: reduced Planck constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-28. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  30. "2018 CODATA Value: quantum of circulation". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  31. "2018 CODATA Value: inverse fine-structure constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  32. "2018 CODATA Value: inverse of conductance quantum". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  33. "2018 CODATA Value: Boltzmann constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  34. "2018 CODATA Value: Josephson constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  35. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of Josephson constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  36. "2018 CODATA Value: Planck length". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  37. "2018 CODATA Value: molar mass of carbon-12". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  38. "2018 CODATA Value: electron mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  39. "2018 CODATA Value: muon mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  40. "2018 CODATA Value: neutron mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-23. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  41. "2018 CODATA Value: neutron mass in u". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-08-23. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  42. "2018 CODATA Value: Planck mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  43. "2018 CODATA Value: proton mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  44. "2018 CODATA Value: proton-electron mass ratio". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  45. "2018 CODATA Value: tau mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  46. "2018 CODATA Value: molar mass constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  47. ૪૭.૦ ૪૭.૧ "2018 CODATA Value: atomic mass constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  48. "2018 CODATA Value: atomic mass constant energy equivalent". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-21. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  49. "2018 CODATA Value: atomic mass constant energy equivalent in MeV". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-21. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  50. ૫૦.૦ ૫૦.૧ "2018 CODATA Value: vacuum magnetic permeability". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  51. "2018 CODATA Value: Bohr magneton". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  52. "2018 CODATA Value: nuclear magneton". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  53. "2018 CODATA Value: Avogadro constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  54. "2018 CODATA Value: molar Planck constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  55. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of ohm-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  56. "2018 CODATA Value: magnetic flux quantum". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  57. "2018 CODATA Value: molar gas constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  58. "2018 CODATA Value: classical electron radius". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  59. "2018 CODATA Value: Rydberg constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  60. "2018 CODATA Value: von Klitzing constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  61. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of von Klitzing constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  62. "2018 CODATA Value: Stefan–Boltzmann constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  63. "2018 CODATA Value: Thomson cross section". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  64. "2018 CODATA Value: Planck temperature". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  65. "2018 CODATA Value: Planck time". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  66. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of volt-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  67. "2018 CODATA Value: molar volume of silicon". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-23. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  68. "2018 CODATA Value: conventional value of watt-90". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-01. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  69. Derived from Z0 = μ0c"2018 CODATA Value: magnetic constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 2019-05-20. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)