ઢાંચો:Clade

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root

Leaf1



Leaf2




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ઢાંચો:Uses TemplateStyles

This template is used for drawing branching trees with the node and base labels being clickable links. Such diagrams are especially suited to represent evolutionary trees (cladograms).

Features previously included only in a separate template, {{Cladex}}, are now incorporated in this template; {{Cladex}} should no longer be used.

Basic features

Use {{Clade}} unless the extra features of {{Cladex}} are needed.

Usage[ફેરફાર કરો]


{{clade
|label1=Base
|1=Node
}}

produces

Base

Node



{{clade
|1={{clade
   |label1=[[Subtree1]]
   |1=Leaf1
   |label2=Subtree2
   |2=[[Leaf2]]
   }}
}}

produces


Subtree1 

Leaf1


Subtree2 

Leaf2




{{clade| style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%
|1={{clade
   |label1=Subtree1
   |1=Leaf1
   |label2=Subtree2
   |2=Leaf2
   }}
}}

produces


Subtree1

Leaf1


Subtree2

Leaf2



Note that the order of the parameters does not matter. Exactly the same output is produced by


{{clade| style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%
|1={{clade
   |2=Leaf2
   |1=Leaf1
   |label1=Subtree1
   |label2=Subtree2
   }}
}}



Subtree1

Leaf1


Subtree2

Leaf2




{{clade
|1={{clade
   |1={{clade | thickness=3
      |1=Leaf1
      |2=Leaf2
      }}
   |2=Leaf3
   }}
}}

produces




Leaf1



Leaf2




Leaf3



To replace a solid line leading to the Nth child with a dashed line, use |stateN=dashed.


{{clade
|1={{clade
   |1={{clade
      |1=Leaf1|state1=dashed
      |2=Leaf2
      }}
   |2=Leaf3
   }}
}}

produces




Leaf1



Leaf2




Leaf3



{{Cladex}} only. To replace a single line leading to the Nth child by a double line, use |stateN=double. Notice that {{Cladex}} has only been used for the (sub)clade where the double line is wanted. The outermost clade should always be specified with {{Clade}} unless its style is altered – see below.


{{clade
|1={{clade
   |1={{cladex
      |1=Leaf1
      |2=Leaf2|state2=double
      }}
   |2=Leaf3
   }}
}}

produces



ઢાંચો:Cladex



Leaf3



Tips[ફેરફાર કરો]

An easy way of creating larger cladograms is to use the Newick format and proceed to edit it using a suitable text editor to produce the markup.

  1. Start with Newick format ((a,b),(c,d))
  2. Replace "(" with "{{clade|"
  3. Replace ")" with "}}"
  4. Edit to replace commas with pipes and numbers
  5. Edit clade labels if needed

Alternatively, one can easily generate required clade code by downloading the free Windows utility, 'Claded', via link at http://code.google.com/p/claded, 'Claded' allowing editing of Cladograms using a tree control.


{{clade
 |1={{clade
    |1=a
    |2=b
    }}
 |2={{clade
    |1=c
    |2=d
    }}
}}

Example Perl script to automate the conversion:

use constant N=>"\n";
use constant T=>"\t";

my $tree='((a,b),(c,d));'; # get sequence
$tree=~s/[\n\r]//g; # loose those spaces
$tree=~ s/\:[\.\d]+//g; # loose those lengths
while ($tree=~ m/\(/) {
	foreach my $clade ($tree=~ m/\(([^\(\)]+)\)/g) {
		my @branches=split /\,/,$clade;
		s/(\t+)/$1\t/g for @branches;
		die 'ERROR: degenerate/empty node!'.N if $#branches<1;
		$tree=~ s/\(\Q$clade\E\)/${\join('','{{clade',N,map(T.'|'.($_+1).'='.$branches[$_].N,0..$#branches),T.'}}')}/; # substitute
	}
	pos($tree)=0;
}
$tree=~s/(\t*)\t\}\}/$1\}\}/g; # lazy fix

print $tree;

Using a box[ફેરફાર કરો]

You can nest the templates and use links around the text. You may use non-breaking spaces (&nbsp;) to obtain spaces or to have labels that have spaces.

The entire cladogram can be placed in a box so that text flows nicely around it. You can use {{Cladogram}} to produce the box.

Example
Neornithes  
Paleognathae

 


 Neognathae 
 

Other birds


Galloanserae 

Anseriformes


    

Galliformes



Craciformes






Sample of {{Cladogram}}
{{cladogram|title=Example
|caption=Sample of {{tl|Cladogram}}
|clades={{clade| style=font-size:75%;line-height:75%
    |label1=[[Neornithes]]  
    |1={{clade
        |label1=[[Paleognathae]]
        |1= 
        |label2= [[Neognathae]] 
        |2={{clade
            |1=Other birds
            |label1= 
            |label2=[[Galloanserae]] 
            |2={{clade
                |1=[[Anseriformes]]
                |label2=    
                |2={{clade
                    |1=[[Galliformes]]
                    |2=[[Craciformes]]
                    }}
                }}
            }}
        }}
    }}
}}

Controlling the layout of sisters[ફેરફાર કરો]

When one sister is represented as a leaf node and the other as a labelled subclade, they do not appear to be at the same level. Consider this cladogram:



Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae (5 taxa)


Banksia subser. Leptophyllae

Banksia telmatiaea



(4 other taxa)




Although Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae and Banksia subser. Leptophyllae are sisters, their names are not aligned in the cladogram. If this is considered undesirable, one solution is to use a label in both cases, as shown below, which now shows the sisters at the same level.


Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae

(5 taxa)


Banksia subser. Leptophyllae

Banksia telmatiaea



(4 other taxa)




Another 'trick' is to introduce a dummy clade. The dotted line below shows where an extra clade has been inserted:



Banksia subser. Sphaerocarpae



Banksia subser. Leptophyllae

Banksia telmatiaea



(4 other taxa)





To achieve this, instead of

{{clade
|1=Sister1
|label2=Sister2
|2={{clade
   ...
   }}
}}

use

{{clade
|1=Sister1
|2={{clade
   |label1=Sister2
   |2={{clade
       ...
      }}
   }}
}}

Bracketting nodes

{{Cladex}} only. To insert a coloured 'bracket' around a set of leaf nodes which follow one another in the generated cladogram:

  • Add barbeginN=colour for the first leaf node, where N is the order of that leaf node within its clade, and colour is the required colour.
  • Add barN=colour for the remaining nodes other than the last (note that N must be the order of that node within its clade).
  • Add barendN=colour for the last node.

Either the outermost clade must be specified by {{Clade}} or if {{Cladex}} is needed there, |style=width:auto must be present.


{{clade|style=font-size:85%;line-height:100%
|1={{cladex
   |1=Leaf A
   |2=Leaf B|barbegin2=green
   |3=Leaf C|bar3=green
   |4={{cladex
      |1=Leaf D|barend1=green
      |2=Leaf E
      |3=Leaf F|barbegin3=purple  
      |4={{cladex
         |1=Leaf G|bar1=purple
         |2=Leaf H|barend2=purple
         }}
      }}
   }}
}}

produces


ઢાંચો:Cladex


The horizontal lines can be omitted by using |barN=colour throughout. Thus the following (note the use of |style=width:auto since the outermost clade uses the extra features of {{Cladex}}):


{{cladex|style=width:auto;font-size:85%;line-height:100%
|1=Leaf A
|2={{cladex
   |1=Leaf B|bar1=midnightblue
   |2=Leaf C|bar2=midnightblue
   }}
|3=Leaf D|bar3=midnightblue 
}}

produces ઢાંચો:Cladex

Note that brackets or bars must only be applied to leaf nodes. In the example above, it may be tempting to write


{{cladex|style=width:auto;font-size:85%;line-height:100%
|1=Leaf A
|bar2=midnightblue
|2={{cladex
   |1=Leaf B
   |2=Leaf C
   }}
|3=Leaf D|bar3=midnightblue
}}

with the expectation that the bar will be to the right of the whole of the clade containing Leaf B and Leaf C. This does not produce the required output.

Specifying colours

You can use any of the ways in which colours can be specified in HTML; e.g. the standard colour names, the three or six hex digit notations, such as #FC3 or #F3C630, or the rgb() notation.

Supplying text labels

Text labels for each bracket/bar can be added using {{Barlabel}}. Accessibility guidelines require pages not to rely on colour alone, so it's particularly important to add labels if you have more than one bracket/bar and need to refer to them separately.

Debugging

If your cladogram doesn't display brackets/bars as you expected, check that:

  • You understand the numbering system for the parameters barN, etc. The N must be the same as the number of the child within its clade. Thus typically you should write |N=label for leaf|barN=colour for bar, e.g. |2=[[Passeridae]]|bar2=midnightblue.
  • You have only attempted to apply brackets/bars to leaf nodes.
  • Either the outermost clade uses {{Clade}} or if it has to use {{Cladex}}, then |style=width:auto is present.

Limitations[ફેરફાર કરો]

Label length[ફેરફાર કરો]

Labels produced by |labelN=, where N is 1, 2, ..., can lead to poor layout of the resulting cladogram. (This does not apply to the text of leaves, i.e. text produced by |N=.) To avoid problems:

  • labels should be kept as short as possible, ideally a single word
  • any necessary spaces in labels should be represented as &nbsp; not as actual spaces
  • line breaks (i.e. <br>) should not be used.

Browser differences[ફેરફાર કરો]

Browser variation: left – Internet Explorer, Firefox; right – Safari, Chrome, Opera

Cladograms are drawn by generating hidden tables. The horizontal and vertical lines making up the tree are actually the edges of table cells. The tables are then drawn by the browser or user agent using its internal algorithms. As these differ from browser to browser, the trees produced will not look the same on all browsers.

In particular, as of  2012 there are two algorithms for laying out tables with empty cells, used by two groups of browsers. Browsers like Internet Explorer and Firefox use one algorithm, producing cladograms like the two on the left in the diagram. Browsers like Safari, Chrome and Opera use another algorithm, producing cladograms like the two on the right in the diagram.

No automated "fix" for these differences exists at present.

If there is a choice over the ordering of the terminal nodes (leaves) of the tree, cladograms look best in the second group of browsers if as much branching as possible is at the bottom of the cladogram. Typically this is produced by arranging the terminal nodes downwards on the page in order of their evolutionary divergence. Compare the bottom row of the diagram to the top row.

Large cladograms[ફેરફાર કરો]

There are limitations on the size and complexity of the cladograms which can be drawn:

  • A maximum of 17 children is allowed per node. It may seem that this could easily be increased by editing the template, but see the next point.
  • Cladograms can only be expanded up to a certain level of complexity because the MediaWiki software limits the resources available for template expansion. The cladogram at APG_III_system#Phylogeny has had to be broken into three parts, because the entire cladogram exhausts the allowed resources (in this case the allowed expansion depth). Any change to the template could result in large cladograms failing to display correctly. In general, don't exceed a depth of 19, i.e. don't nest one cladex template inside another more than 19 times.

Inclusion in books[ફેરફાર કરો]

There are many known bugs in rendering tables in the software which produces Wikipedia books; see the book tool feedback page. As of  2011 these result in the lines in cladograms not displaying in books.