શાકભાજી એ વનસ્પતિના ખાઈ શકાય તેવા કોઈ પણ ભાગને કહેવાય છે. શાકભાજીમાં વનસ્પતિનાં પર્ણ, ફળ, ફૂલ, પ્રકાંડ તેમ જ મૂળ એમ કોઈ પણ ભાગનો સમાવેશ થાય છે.
વિજ્ઞાન અને સામાજીક દૃષ્ટિકોણથી શાકભાજીની વ્યાખ્યા અલગ અલગ હોય શકે. જેમ કે, મશરૂમ શાકભાજી ગણાતુંં નથી કે ટામેટાને ફળ કહેવાય, વગેરે.
શાકભાજી અને ફળ વચ્ચેનો તફાવત[ફેરફાર કરો]
શાકભાજી અને ફળને દર્શાવતા મુખ્ય ચાર તફાવતો
- ફળ(વૈજ્ઞાનિક સમજૂતી): તે વનસ્પતિ અંડાશય છે જેનાં દ્વારા તે તેનો વંશવેલો ટકાવે છે.
- ફળ(સામાજિક સમજૂતી): વન્સ્પતીનો એવો ભાગ કે જે સ્વાદમાં મીઠો હોય અને જેમાં વનસ્પતિના બીજ હોય.
- Vegetable: any edible part of a plant with a savory flavor.
- Vegetable (legal): commodities that are taxed as vegetables in a particular jurisdiction
In everyday, grocery-store, culinary language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive; plant products that are called fruit are hardly ever classified as vegetables, and vice versa. For scientists, the word "fruit" has a precise botanical meaning (a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant), which is considerably different from its common meaning, and includes many poisonous fruits. While peaches, plums, and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items commonly called "vegetables" — such as eggplants, bell peppers, and tomatoes — are technically fruits, as are most cereals, as well as some spices like black pepper and chillies. Some plant products, such as corn or peas, may be considered vegetables only while still unripe.
The question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is correctly identified as, and thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the 1883 Tariff Act on imported produce. The court did acknowledge, however, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit.
Languages other than English often have categories that can be identified with the common English meanings of "fruit" and "vegetable", but their precise meaning often depends on local culinary traditions. For example, in Brazil the avocado is traditionally consumed with sugar as a dessert or in milk shakes, and hence regarded as a fruit; whereas in other countries (including Mexico and the United States) it is used in salads and dips, and hence considered a vegetable.
વનસ્પતિના કેટલાક ભાગો જેનો ઉપયોગ શાકભાજી તરીકે થાય છે[ફેરફાર કરો]
- Flower bud: broccoli, cauliflower, globe artichokes
- દાણા: મકાઈ, વટાણા, કઠોળ
- Leaves: kale, collard greens, spinach, beet greens, turnip greens, endive, lettuce
- Leaf sheaths: leeks
- Buds: Brussels sprouts, capers
- Stem: Kohlrabi
- Stems of leaves: celery, rhubarb, cardoon
- Stem shoots: asparagus, bamboo shoots, and ginger
- Tubers: potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, sweet potatoes, and yams
- Whole-plant sprouts: soybean (moyashi), mung beans, urad, and alfalfa.
- Roots: carrots, parsnips, beets, radishes, rutabagas, turnips, and burdocks.
- Bulbs: onions, shallots, garlic
- Fruits in the botanical sense, but used as vegetables: tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, zucchinis, pumpkins, peppers, eggplant, tomatillos, christophene, okra, breadfruit and avocado, and also the following:
Vegetables are eaten in a variety of ways, as part of main meals and as snacks. The nutritional content of vegetables varies considerably, though generally they contain little protein or fat, and varying proportions of vitamins, provitamins, dietary minerals, fiber and carbohydrates. Vegetables contain a great variety of other phytochemicals, some of which have been claimed to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anticarcinogenic properties.
However, vegetables often also contain toxins and antinutrients such as α-solanine, α-chaconine, enzyme inhibitors (of cholinesterase, protease, amylase, etc.), cyanide and cyanide precursors, oxalic acid, and more. Depending on the concentration, such compounds may reduce the edibility, nutritional value, and health benefits of dietary vegetables. Cooking and/or other processing may be necessary to eliminate or reduce them.
Eating diets containing sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables can help lower your risk of heart diseases and type 2 diabetes. Doing this may also protect against some cancers and decrease bone loss. Also, getting potassium (plentiful in both fruits and vegetables) will help prevent the forming of kidney stones.
Color pigments[ફેરફાર કરો]
The green color of leafy vegetables is due to the presence of the green pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is affected by pH and changes to olive green in acid conditions, and bright green in alkaline conditions. Some of the acids are released in steam during cooking, particularly if cooked without a cover.
The red/blue coloring of some fruits and vegetables (e.g. blackberries and red cabbage) are due to anthocyanins, which are sensitive to changes in pH. When pH is neutral, the pigments are purple, when acidic, red, and when alkaline, blue. These pigments are very water soluble.
For food safety, the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected. At the store, they should not be damaged or bruised and pre-cut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice. All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage. Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as any cooking utensils or surfaces that may have come into contact with them (e.g. cutting boards). Fruits and vegetables, if they are not going to be cooked, should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood or eggs. All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within 2 hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.
Many root and non-root vegetables that grow underground can be stored through winter in a root cellar or other similarly cool, dark and dry place to prevent mold, greening and sprouting. Care should be taken in understanding the properties and vulnerabilities of the particular roots to be stored. These vegetables can last through to early spring and be nearly as nutritious as when fresh.
See also[ફેરફાર કરો]
- આહારની ગુણવત્તા
- આહાર સુરક્શા
- શાકભાજીની યાદી
- Perennial vegetable
- વનસ્પતિ રોગો
- Market gardening
- Vegetable carving
- લણણી પછીનું નુકસાન ( ફળ અને શાકભાજી)
- Full text of the opinion in Nix v. Hedden courtesy of Findlaw.com.
- Woodruff, Sandra L. (1995). Secrets of Fat-Free Cooking : Over 150 Fat-Free and Low-Fat Recipes from Breakfast to Dinner-Appetizers to Desserts. Garden City Park, N.Y: Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 0-89529-668-3. OCLC 33142807.
- Whitaker, Julian M. (2001). Reversing Diabetes. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-67658-6. OCLC 45058465.
- ઢાંચો:Cite article
- Steinmetz KA, Potter JD (1996). "Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review". J Am Diet Assoc. 96 (10): 1027–39. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00273-8. PMID 8841165.
- Food Safety Basics for Fruits and Vegetables at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Pawanexh Kohli (2008), Why Cold Chain for Vegetables in Fruits and Vegetables Post-Harvest Care: The Basics. Crosstree Techno-visors
- "67.080: Fruits. Vegetables". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2009-04-23.
Further reading[ફેરફાર કરો]
- Munro, Derek B., Small, E. 1997 Vegetables of Canada. NRC Research Press, Ottawa ISBN 978-0-660-19503-2
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- Photo ID of Vegetables by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
- UC Vegetable & Research Information Center
- Michigan Vegetable Information Network