|વિસ્તાર અથવા રાજ્ય||દક્ષિણ ભારત, શ્રીલંકા|
|મુખ્ય સામગ્રી||અડદ (દાળ) (ફોતરા વિનાની) અને ચોખા|
|વિવિધ રૂપો||બટન ઈડલી, સાંભર ઈડલી|
ઈડલી એ દક્ષિણ ભારતીય વાનગી છે જે આખા ભારતમાં પ્રખ્યાત છે. ઈડલી સામાન્ય રીતે બે કે ત્રણ ઈંચના વ્યાસની ચપટી ગોળાકાર હોય છે. તે ફોતરા વિનાની અડદની દાળ અને ચોખાને પલાળી, વાટી અને બનેલાં ખીરાને આથો આવ્યા પછી વરાળમાં બાફીને બનાવવામાં આવે છે.
ઇડલી (અને વરાળથી બાફવાની પદ્ધતિ) ભારતમાં છેક ઇ.સ. ૭૦૦થી જાણીતી હતી. ઇ.સ. ૮૦૦થી ૧૨૦૦ની વચ્ચે ઇન્ડોનેશિયાની આવી રાંધણપદ્ધતિનો પ્રભાવ ભારતીય શૈલિ પર પડ્યો અને તેને કારણે આધુનિક ઇડલીનો ઉદભવ થયો. Earliest mention of the term 'Idli' occurs in the Kannada writing of Shivakotiacharya in 920 AD,</ref> and it seems to have started as a dish made only of fermented black lentil. Chavundaraya II, the author of the earliest available Kannada encyclopaedia, Lokopakara (c. 1025), describes the preparation of idli by soaking urad dal (black gram) in butter milk, ground to a fine paste and mixed with the clear water of curd, and spices. The Kannada king and scholar Someshwara III, reigning in the area now called Karnataka, included an idli recipe in his encyclopedia, The Manasollasa, written in Sanskrit ca. 1130 A.D. There is no known record of rice being added until some time in the 17th century. It may have been found that the rice helped speed the fermentation process. Although the ingredients used in preparing idli have changed, the preparation process and the name have still remained the same.
To make idli, place four parts uncooked rice to one part split black lentil (minapa pappu, urad dal) in a pan and soak. Grind the lentils and rice to a paste in a heavy stone grinding vessel (rolu-rokali, oralu kallu). Leave the paste to ferment overnight, until it has expanded to about 2½ times its original volume. In the morning, put the idli batter into the ghee-greased molds(traditional method in tamil nadu avoids greasing & uses pure white cloth which is placed on moulds and batter is poured over it after the idlis are cooked the trays along with cloth are inverted upside down in a plate & water is sprinkled on the cloth, then the cloth is pulled &idlis come out without sticking to the cloth .So that idlis are prepared without a single drop of oil / ghee.Those cloths are washed daily and kept separately in kitchens.) of an idli tray or "tree" for steaming. The perforated molds allow the idlis to be cooked evenly. The tree holds the trays above the level of boiling water in a pot, and the pot is covered until the idlis are done (about 10–25 minutes, depending on size). The idli is somewhat similar to the attu, dosa, a fried preparation of the same batter.
In the olden days, when the idli mold cooking plates were not popular or widely available, the thick idli batter was poured on a cloth tightly tied on the mouth of a concave deep cooking pan or tava half filled with water. A heavy lid was placed on the pan and the pot kept on the boil until the batter was cooked into idli. This was often a large idli depending on the circumference of the pan. It was then cut into bite-size pieces and eaten.
Idlis are usually served in pairs with Coconut chutney (thengai chutney/ kobbari chutney) or Kaara Chutney (Onion chutney), Sambar and Idli milagai podi(karam podi) with ghee. Kobbari pachadi and Karampodi are first used to eat in combination of idlis in Andhra Pradesh, specifically in Kostha Andhra Districts.
Allam Pachadi (which is made of Ginger and available in both the sweet and spicy varieties), also goes very well with Idlies and Dosas.
સમકાલીન ઈડલીઓ અને વિવિધતા[ફેરફાર કરો]
South Indians have brought the popular idli wherever they have settled throughout the world. Cooks have had to solve problems of hard-to-get ingredients, and climates that do not encourage overnight fermentation.
Newer "quick" recipes for the idli can be rice- or wheat-based (rava idli). Parboiled rice can reduce the soaking time considerably. Store-bought ground rice is available, or Cream of Rice may be used. Similarly, semolina or Cream of Wheat may be used for rava idli. Yogurt may be added to provide the sour flavor for unfermented batters. Prepackaged mixes allow for almost instant idlis; however, the additional health benefits of fermentation process will be lacking. Idli Burger is another variation that can be made easily.
Besides the microwave steamer, electric idli steamers are available, with automatic steam release and shut-off for perfect cooking. Both types are non-stick, so a fat-free idli is possible. Table-mounted electric wet grinders may take the place of floor-bound attu kal. With these appliances, even the classic idlis can be made more easily.
The plain rice/black lentil idli continues to be the popular version, but it may also incorporate a variety of extra ingredients, savory or sweet. Mustard seeds, fresh chile peppers, black pepper, cumin, coriander seed and its fresh leaf form (cilantro), fenugreek seeds, curry leaves, fresh ginger root, sesame seeds, nuts, garlic, scallions, coconut, and the unrefined sugar jaggery are all possibilities. Filled idlis contain small amounts of chutneys, sambars, or sauces placed inside before steaming. Idlis are sometimes steamed in a wrapping of leaves such as banana leaves or jackfruit leaves.
A variety of nontraditional idlis exist these days, namely, standard idli, mini idlis soaked in sambar, rava idli, Kancheepuram idli, stuffed idli with a filling of potato, beans, carrot and masala, ragi idli, pudi idli with the sprinkling of chutney pudi that covers the bite-sized pieces of idlis, malli idli shallow-fried with coriander and curry leaves, and curd idli dipped in masala curds.
South Indian temple town Madurai in Tamil Nadu is famous for its overnight idli shops where one can have hot and soft idlis even at 2 AM. These idlies are served with sambar and also with more than three varieties of chutney like coconut chutney, cilantro chutney, onion chutney and mint. The softness of these idlis lie in the selection of rice and black gram (black lentil).
Other temple towns in Tamil Nadu like Kancheepuram and Tanjore are also famous for the tasty idlis. Most of the people in south India take ildi as the breakfast. Idly an easily disgestible food taken with sambar provides a mix of proteins and carbohydrates to the body. Apart from sambar idly is also taken with brinjal/tomato kothsu (a south Indian side dish), puli milagai( a gravy made of tamarind, chilly and onion), vadai curry, etc. Idly with vadai curry combination is most popular in Chennai.
Idly goes very well with Idly powder (Milagai podi (literally Chilli powder in Tamil)). Many varieties of idly powder exist; the most popular ones include the powders made of black lentil/chana dal and Ellu podi (made of sesame seed and dried red chilly).
Apart from many other variations of Idlis in Karnataka, the people of Karnataka can be found continuing the 1100-year-old way of making the idli as mentioned in the works of Shivakotiacharya or Chavundaraya. The finished product is called Uddina idli, with the main ingredient remaining Urad dal (black lentil).
રામસેરી ઈડલી[ફેરફાર કરો]
Ramasseri, an offbeat village in Palakkad is known all over Kerala for the idlis it makes—the delicious Ramasseri Idli. Spongy and soft, Ramasseri Idli is slightly different in shape from the conventional idlis. It is a little flat and round. Ramasseri Idli is eaten with Podi mixed in coconut oil. The beginning was from a Mudaliar family living near Mannath Bhagavathi Temple in Ramasseri near Elappully.
The recipe of Ramasseri idli dates back to about one century, which again is a trade secret. The Muthaliyar family had migrated to Palakkad from Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. The new generation in the profession says that the secret of the recipe and taste were handed down to them from the older women of the community. Now the idli business is confined to four families in Ramasseri. Selection of rice is very important in making Ramasseri idli. Usually the varieties used are Kazhama, Thavalakannan, Ponni etc.
The taste depends on the boiling of the patty itself. Drying and dehusking are also important and need to be done in a particular way. The combination of rice and black gram is also equally important. For 10 kg of rice, one kg of black gram is used. Idli is made only after four hours of fermentation. Steaming of the idli is done on a cloth covered on the mud pot using firewood. This allegedly provides a special taste to the preparation. Leftover Idli can be torn into crumbs and used for preparing dishes such as Idli fry and Idli Upma.
ચિત્ર ગેલેરી[ફેરફાર કરો]
આ પણ જુઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]
|વિકિમીડિયા કૉમન્સ પર category:Idli વિષયક વધુ દ્રશ્ય-શ્રાવ્ય માધ્યમો (Media) ઉપલબ્ધ છે.|
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- K. T. Achaya (1994), p. 90.
- K. T. Achaya (May 12, 1994). Indian Food: A Historical Companion. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0195634488.
- Devi, Yamuna (1987). Lord Krishna's Cuisine: The Art of Indian Vegetarian Cooking, Dutton. ISBN 0-525-24564-2.
- Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849313721.
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- Rau, Santha Rama (1969). The Cooking of India, Time-Life Books.