ગુપ્ત રોગ અથવા જાતીય રોગ મૈથુન સંક્રમણો (Sexually transmitted infections, STI) કે મૈથુન ચેપ કે વેનેરીયલ ડીસીઝ (venereal diseases, VD), એ એવા રોગો કે બિમારીઓ છે કે જેમનો ચેપ મોટ ભાગે માનવીય સંભોગ કે જાતીય સંભોગ ક્રિયાઓ દ્વારા ફેલાતો હોય છે. આ રોગ કે સંક્રમણો યૌન મૈથુન, મુખ મૈથુન તથા ગુદા મૈથુન. પ્રાચીન સમયમાં તેને જાતીય રોગો કહેવાતાં પણ હવે તેને જાતીય સંક્રમણો કહેવાય છે. રોગ કરતાં સંક્રમણ એ શબ્દ વધુ વ્યાપક અર્થ ધરાવે છે. કોઈ એક રોગી ન હોતાં વ્યક્તિ સંક્રમિત હોઈ શકે છે જે અન્યોને પણ ચેપ લગાડી શકે છે. અમુક રોગ દવાના ઈન્જેક્શન દ્વારા, બાળકના જન્મ દ્વરા કે સ્તનપાન દ્વારા પણ ફેલાઈ શકે છે. હજારો વર્ષોથી જાતીય રોગો કે સંક્રમણના અસ્તિત્વની જાણ માનવ સમુદાયને છે.
૧૯૯૦ સુધીના દશક સુધી જાતીય સંક્રમણને જાતીય રોગ કે વેનેરીયલ ડિસીઝ કહેવાતા હતાં. વેનેરિયલ આ શબ્દ લેટિન શબ્દ પ્રાચીન રોમન દંતકથા ના પ્રેમના દેવીના નામ વિનસ પરથી પડ્યું હતું. આને સામાજિક રોગ પણ કહેવાય છે.
જાતીય સંક્રમણ એ જાતીય રોગ કરતાં ઘણી વ્યાપક વ્યાખ્યા છે. સંક્રમણએ પરોપજીવી જીવાણુંઓ વસાહત સ્થિતી છે, કોઈ વ્યક્તિમાં જીવાણું ઓની આવી વસાહત તેને કોઈ નુકશાન નથી પહોંચાડતી. જ્યારે સંક્રમણ ને કારણે વ્યક્તિના અવયવોની કાર્ય પ્રણાલી પર હાનિકારક સર પહોંચે છે આ પરિસ્થિતીને રોગ કહે છે. એવું પણ બની શકે છે કે સંક્રમણ અને રોગ આ બંને પરિસ્થિતીમાં કોઈ ચિન્હો હોઈ પણ શકે અને ન પણ હોઈ શકે. એચ.પી.વી. જેવા સંક્રમણો એવા સંક્રમણો છે કે જે પ્રાયઃ સર્વ જાતીય રીતે સક્રીય એવા મોટા ભાગના લોકોને લાગે છે પણ તે સૌમાં રોગ નું સ્વરૂપ નથી લેતો. આવા સંક્રમણની ઓળખને કારણે રોગને બદલે સંક્રમણ શબ્દ પ્રચલિત બન્યો છે. સ્વાસ્થ્ય અધિકારીઓ દ્વારા સૌ પ્રથમ આ શબ્દ રોગી અને સંક્રમિત લોકોને જુદા તારવવા વપરાયો હતો.[સંદર્ભ આપો]
મોટા ભાગના લોકોને જ્યાં સુધી લક્ષણો ન દેખાય કે પરીક્ષણ અહેવાલ ન આવે ત્યાં સુધી જાતીય રોગ હોવાની જાણ થતી નથી. ઘણા લોકો સંક્રમણને પણ જાતીય રોગ તરીકે જ ઓળખતા હોય છે.
Moreover, the term sexually transmissible disease is sometimes used since it is less restrictive in consideration of other factors or means of transmission. For instance, meningitis is transmissible by means of sexual contact but is not labeled as an STI because sexual contact is not the primary vector for the pathogens that cause meningitis. This discrepancy is addressed by the probability of infection by means other than sexual contact. In general, an STI is an infection that has a negligible probability of transmission by means other than sexual contact, but has a realistic means of transmission by sexual contact (more sophisticated means—blood transfusion, sharing of hypodermic needles—are not taken into account). Thus, one may presume that, if a person is infected with an STI, e.g., chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, it was transmitted to him/her by means of sexual contact.
The diseases on this list are most commonly transmitted solely by sexual activity. Many infectious diseases, including the common cold, influenza, pneumonia, and most others that are transmitted person-to-person can also be transmitted during sexual contact, if one person is infected, due to the close contact involved. However, even though these diseases may be transmitted during sex, they are not considered STDs.
- Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
- Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis)
- Granuloma inguinale or (Klebsiella granulomatis)
- Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
- Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- Candidiasis (yeast infection)
- Viral hepatitis (Hepatitis B virus)—saliva, venereal fluids.
(Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fecal-oral route; Hepatitis C is rarely sexually transmittable, and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D (only if infected with B) is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission.)
- Herpes simplex (Herpes simplex virus 1, 2) skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without visible blisters
- HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)—venereal fluids, semen, breast milk, blood
- HPV (Human Papillomavirus)—skin and mucosal contact. 'High risk' types of HPV cause almost all cervical cancers, as well as some anal, penile, and vulvar cancer. Some other types of HPV cause genital warts.
- Molluscum contagiosum (molluscum contagiosum virus MCV)—close contact
- Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" or "pubic lice" (Pthirus pubis)
- Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)
Transmission probability[ફેરફાર કરો]
The risks and transmission probabilities of sexually transmitted diseases are summarized by act in the table below.
|Odds of transmission per unprotected sexual act with an infected person|
|Known risks||Possible or unknown risks|
|Performing oral sex on a man||
With ass to mouth practices:
|Performing oral sex on a woman||
|Receiving oral sex - man|
|Receiving oral sex - woman|
|Vaginal sex - man||
|Vaginal sex - woman|
|Anal sex - insertive|
|Anal sex - receptive|
Many STDs are (more easily) transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis, vulva, rectum, urinary tract and (less often—depending on type of infection)[સંદર્ભ આપો] the mouth, throat, respiratory tract and eyes. The visible membrane covering the head of the penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of the mouth). Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain pathogens into the body. Pathogens are also able to pass through breaks or abrasions of the skin, even minute ones. The shaft of the penis is particularly susceptible due to the friction caused during penetrative sex. The primary sources of infection in ascending order are venereal fluids, saliva, mucosal or skin (particularly the penis), infections may also be transmitted from feces, urine and sweat.[શંકાસ્પદ ] The amount of contact with infective sources which causes infection varies with each pathogen but in all cases a disease may result from even light contact from fluid carriers like venereal fluids onto a mucous membrane.
This is one reason that the probability of transmitting many infections is far higher from sex than by more casual means of transmission, such as non-sexual contact—touching, hugging, shaking hands—but it is not the only reason. Although mucous membranes exist in the mouth as in the genitals, many STIs seem to be easier to transmit through oral sex than through deep kissing. According to a safe sex chart, many infections that are easily transmitted from the mouth to the genitals or from the genitals to the mouth, are much harder to transmit from one mouth to another. With HIV, genital fluids happen to contain much more of the pathogen than saliva. Some infections labeled as STIs can be transmitted by direct skin contact. Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples. KSHV, on the other hand, may be transmitted by deep-kissing but also when saliva is used as a sexual lubricant.
Depending on the STD, a person may still be able to spread the infection if no signs of disease are present. For example, a person is much more likely to spread herpes infection when blisters are present (STD) than when they are absent (STI). However, a person can spread HIV infection (STI) at any time, even if he/she has not developed symptoms of AIDS (STD).
All sexual behaviors that involve contact with the bodily fluids of another person should be considered to contain some risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Most attention has focused on controlling HIV, which causes AIDS, but each STD presents a different situation.
As may be noted from the name, sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted from one person to another by certain sexual activities rather than being actually caused by those sexual activities. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses are still the causative agents. It is not possible to catch any sexually transmitted disease from a sexual activity with a person who is not carrying a disease; conversely, a person who has an STD got it from contact (sexual or otherwise) with someone who had it, or his/her bodily fluids. Some STDs such as HIV can be transmitted from mother to child either during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Although the likelihood of transmitting various diseases by various sexual activities varies a great deal, in general, all sexual activities between two (or more) people should be considered as being a two-way route for the transmission of STDs, i.e., "giving" or "receiving" are both risky although receiving carries a higher risk.
Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered an absolute safeguard. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.
Recent epidemiological studies have investigated the networks that are defined by sexual relationships between individuals, and discovered that the properties of sexual networks are crucial to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, assortative mixing between people with large numbers of sexual partners seems to be an important factor.
It is possible to be an asymptomatic carrier of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, sexually transmitted diseases in women often cause the serious condition of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes. Sexual health clinics fight to promote the use of condoms and provide outreach for at-risk communities.
The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer with an infected partner. Not all sexual activities involve contact: cybersex, phonesex or masturbation from a distance are methods of avoiding contact. Proper use of condoms reduces contact and risk. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur even with a condom.
Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or before resuming contact if a partner engaged in contact with someone else. Many infections are not detectable immediately after exposure, so enough time must be allowed between possible exposures and testing for the tests to be accurate. Certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures.
Many diseases that establish permanent infections can so occupy the immune system that other diseases become more easily transmitted. The innate immune system led by defensins against HIV can prevent transmission of HIV when viral counts are very low, but if busy with other viruses or overwhelmed, HIV can establish itself. Certain viral STI's also greatly increase the risk of death for HIV infected patients.
Vaccines are available that protect against some viral STIs, such as Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and some types of HPV. Vaccination before initiation of sexual contact is advised to assure maximal protection.
Condoms and female condoms only provide protection when used properly as a barrier, and only to and from the area that it covers. Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STDs. In the case of HIV, sexual transmission routes almost always involve the penis, as HIV cannot spread through unbroken skin, thus properly shielding the insertive penis with a properly worn condom from the vagina or anus effectively stops HIV transmission. An infected fluid to broken skin borne direct transmission of HIV would not be considered "sexually transmitted", but can still theoretically occur during sexual contact, this can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when having open bleeding wounds. Other STDs, even viral infections, can be prevented with the use of latex, polyurethane or polyisoprene condoms as a barrier. Some microorganisms and viruses are small enough to pass through the pores in natural skin condoms, but are still too large to pass through latex or synthetic condoms.
Proper usage entails:
- Not putting the condom on too tight at the end, and leaving 1.5 cm (3/4 inch) room at the tip for ejaculation. Putting the condom on snug can and often does lead to failure.
- Wearing a condom too loose can defeat the barrier.
- Avoiding inverting, spilling a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not.
- Avoiding condoms made of substances other than latex, polyisoprene or polyurethane that do not protect against HIV.
- Avoiding the use of oil based lubricants (or anything with oil in it) with latex condoms, as oil can eat holes into them.
- Using flavored condoms for oral sex only, as the sugar in the flavoring can lead to yeast infections if used to penetrate.
Not following the first five guidelines above perpetuates the common misconception that condoms are not tested or designed properly.[સંદર્ભ આપો]
In order to best protect oneself and the partner from STIs, the old condom and its contents should be assumed to be infectious. Therefore the old condom must be properly disposed of. A new condom should be used for each act of intercourse, as multiple usage increases the chance of breakage, defeating the effectiveness as a barrier.
Researchers had hoped that nonoxynol-9, a vaginal microbicide would help decrease STD rates. Trials, however, have found it ineffective. In fact, the use of nonoxynol-9 can put women at a higher risk of HIV infection.
STI tests may test for a single infection, or consist of a number of individual tests for any of a wide range of STIs, including tests for syphilis, trichomonas, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes, hepatitis and HIV tests. No procedure tests for all infectious agents.
STI tests may be used for a number of reasons:
- as a diagnostic test to determine the cause of symptoms or illness
- as a screening test to detect asymptomatic or presymptomatic infections
- as a check that prospective sexual partners are free of disease before they engage in sex without safer sex precautions (for example, when starting a long term mutually monogamous sexual relationship, in fluid bonding, or for procreation).
- as a check prior to or during pregnancy, to prevent harm to the baby
- as a check after birth, to check that the baby has not caught an STI from the mother
- to prevent the use of infected donated blood or organs
- as part of the process of contact tracing from a known infected individual
- as part of mass epidemiological surveillance
Not all STIs are symptomatic, and symptoms may not appear immediately after infection. In some instances a disease can be carried with no symptoms, which leaves a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Depending on the disease, some untreated STIs can lead to infertility, chronic pain or even death. Early identification and treatment results in less chance to spread disease, and for some conditions may improve the outcomes of treatment.
There is often a window period after initial infection during which an STI test will be negative. During this period the infection may be transmissible. The duration of this period varies depending on the infection and the test.
Diagnosis may also be delayed by reluctance of the infected person to seek a medical professional. One report indicated that afflicted people turn to the Internet rather than to a medical professional for information on STIs to a higher degree than for other sexual problems.
STD Wizard[ફેરફાર કરો]
The STD Wizard is a publicly available expert system for determining which screening tests, vaccinations, and evaluations are recommended, related to sexually transmitted diseases. The information included within the STD Wizard is based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines - 2006". The system has English and Spanish language interfaces.
The STD Wizard runs in a web browser. The program asks a series of questions, related to demographics, behaviors, and symptoms. There are potentially over 100 questions, but most users get asked about 20. The exact questions asked depend on the user's responses. Typical questions include:
- Demographics - How old are you, in years?
- Behaviors - Have you had more than one sex partner within the past six months?
- Symptoms - Are you having a discharge from your penis or burning during urination?
Typical recommendations include:
- Screening tests - e.g., HIV screening test
- Vaccinations - e.g., Hepatitis B vaccination
- Evaluations - e.g., Seek medical attention in the next week for rash
High risk exposure such as that which occurs in rape cases may be treated prophylacticly using antibiotic combinations such as azithromycin, cefixime, and metronidazole.
An option for treating partners of patients (index cases) diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea is patient-delivered partner therapy, which is the clinical practice of treating the sex partners of index cases by providing prescriptions or medications to the patient to take to his/her partner without the health care provider first examining the partner.
STD incidence rates remain high in most of the world, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances that can rapidly render patients with many STDs noninfectious and cure most. In many cultures, changing sexual morals and oral contraceptive use have eliminated traditional sexual restraints, especially for women, and both physicians and patients have difficulty dealing openly and candidly with sexual issues. Additionally, development and spread of drug-resistant bacteria (e.g., penicillin-resistant gonococci) makes some STDs harder to cure. The effect of travel is most dramatically illustrated by the rapid spread of the AIDS virus (HIV-1) from Africa to Europe and the Americas in the late 1970s.
In 1996, the World Health Organization estimated that more than 1 million people were being infected daily. About 60% of these infections occur in young people <25 years of age, and of these 30% are <20 years. Between the ages of 14 and 19, STDs occur more frequently in girls than boys by a ratio of nearly 2:1; this equalizes by age 20. An estimated 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis occurred throughout the world in 1999.
Commonly reported prevalences of STIs among sexually active adolescent girls both with and without lower genital tract symptoms include chlamydia (10–25%), gonorrhea (3–18%), syphilis (0–3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (8–16%), and herpes simplex virus (2–12%).[સંદર્ભ આપો] Among adolescent boys with no symptoms of urethritis, isolation rates include chlamydia (9–11%) and gonorrhea (2–3%).[સંદર્ભ આપો] At least one in four U.S. teenage girls has a sexually transmitted disease, a CDC study found. Among girls who admitted ever having sex, the rate was 40%.
AIDS is the single largest cause of mortality in present-day Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations between partners, one of whom has HIV. Approximately 1.1 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States, and AIDS remains the leading cause of death among African American women between ages 25 and 34. Hepatitis B is also classed as a sexually transmitted disease because it can be passed on sexually. The disease is found globally, with the highest rates in Asia and Africa and lower rates in the Americas and Europe. Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus.
The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494 when it broke out among French troops besieging Naples. From this centre, the disease swept across Europe, killing more than five million people. As Jared Diamond describes it, "[W]hen syphilis was first definitely recorded in Europe in 1495, its pustules often covered the body from the head to the knees, caused flesh to fall from people's faces, and led to death within a few months," rendering it far more fatal than it is today. Diamond concludes,"[B]y 1546, the disease had evolved into the disease with the symptoms so well known to us today."
Prior to the invention of modern medicines, sexually transmitted diseases were generally incurable, and treatment was limited to treating the symptoms of the disease. The first voluntary hospital for venereal diseases was founded in 1746 at London Lock Hospital. Treatment was not always voluntary: in the second half of the 19th century, the Contagious Diseases Act was used to arrest suspected prostitutes.
The first effective treatment for a sexually transmitted disease was salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis. With the discovery of antibiotics, a large number of sexually transmitted diseases became easily curable, and this, combined with effective public health campaigns against STDs, led to a public perception during the 1960s and 1970s that they have ceased to be a serious medical threat.
During this period, the importance of contact tracing in treating STIs was recognized. By tracing the sexual partners of infected individuals, testing them for infection, treating the infected and tracing their contacts in turn, STI clinics could be very effective at suppressing infections in the general population.
In the 1980s, first genital herpes and then AIDS emerged into the public consciousness as sexually transmitted diseases that could not be cured by modern medicine. AIDS in particular has a long asymptomatic period—during which time HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS) can replicate and the disease can be transmitted to others—followed by a symptomatic period, which leads rapidly to death unless treated. HIV/AIDS entered the United States in about 1969 likely through a single infected immigrant from Haiti. Recognition that AIDS threatened a global pandemic led to public information campaigns and the development of treatments that allow AIDS to be managed by suppressing the replication of HIV for as long as possible. Contact tracing continues to be an important measure, even when diseases are incurable, as it helps to contain infection.
- ↑ Are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) different from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૦-૦૧-૨૪ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન, Frequently asked questions (FAQ) About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Ethiopian AIDS Resource Center "Sometimes the terms STI and STD are used interchangeably. This can be confusing and not always accurate, so it helps first to understand the difference between infection and disease. Infection simply means that a germ—virus, bacteria, or parasite—that can cause disease or sickness is present inside a person’s body. An infected person does not necessarily have any symptoms or signs that the virus or bacteria is actually hurting his or her body; they do not necessarily feel sick. A disease means that the infection is actually causing the infected person to feel sick, or to notice something is wrong. For this reason, the term STI—which refers to infection with any germ that can cause an STD, even if the infected person has no symptoms—is a much broader term than STD."
- ↑ Workowski K, Berman S (2006). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006" (PDF). MMWR Recomm Rep. 55 (RR–11): 1–94. PMID 16888612.
- ↑ Wu J, Chen C, Sheen I, Lee S, Tzeng H, Choo K (1995). "Evidence of transmission of hepatitis D virus to spouses from sequence analysis of the viral genome". Hepatology. 22 (6): 1656–60. doi:10.1002/hep.1840220607. PMID 7489970.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- ↑ Farci P (2003). "Delta hepatitis: an update". J Hepatol. 39 (Suppl 1): S212–9. doi:10.1016/S0168-8278(03)00331-3. PMID 14708706.
- ↑ Shukla N, Poles M (2004). "Hepatitis B virus infection: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and human immunodeficiency virus". Clin Liver Dis. 8 (2): 445–60, viii. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2004.02.005. PMID 15481349.
- ↑ Department of Public Health, City & County of San Francisco (2011). STD Risks Chart
- ↑ ૭.૦ ૭.૧ ૭.૨ ૭.૩ Varghese B, Maher JE, Peterman TA, Branson BM,Steketee RW (2002). "Reducing the risk of sexual HIV transmission: quantifying the per-act risk for HIV on the basis of choice of partner, sex act, and condom use". Sex. Transm. Dis. 29 (1): 38–43. doi:10.1097/00007435-200201000-00007. PMID 11773877.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- ↑ ૮.૦ ૮.૧ ૮.૨ Jin F; et al. (2010). "Per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men in Sydney in the era of HAART". AIDS. 24 (6): 907–913. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283372d90. PMC 2852627. PMID 20139750. Unknown parameter
|month=ignored (મદદ); Explicit use of et al. in:
- ↑ ૯.૦ ૯.૧ ૯.૨ ૯.૩ ૯.૪ Hoare A (2010). models of HIV epidemics in Australia and Southeast Asia
- ↑ ૧૦.૦ ૧૦.૧ ૧૦.૨ Burchell A; et al. (2006). "Modeling the Sexual Transmissibility of Human Papillomavirus Infection using Stochastic Computer Simulation and Empirical Data from a Cohort Study of Young Women in Montreal, Canada". American Journal of Epidemology. 169 (3): 534–543. doi:10.1093/aje/kwj077. Unknown parameter
|month=ignored (મદદ); Explicit use of et al. in:
- ↑ ૧૧.૦ ૧૧.૧ ૧૧.૨ ૧૧.૩ ૧૧.૪ Australasian contact tracing manual. Specific infections where contact tracing is generally recommended સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૧-૦૩-૦૧ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન
- ↑ ૧૨.૦ ૧૨.૧ ૧૨.૨ Bryan C (2011)INFECTIOUS DISEASE CHAPTER EIGHT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
- ↑ Virus Pathogenesis સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૦૯-૦૧-૧૪ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન, Microbiology Bytes
- ↑ HIV/AIDS Glossary[હંમેશ માટે મૃત કડી], World Bank
- ↑ Safe Sex Chart, violet blue: open source sex
- ↑ Villhauer, Tanya (2005-05-20). "Condoms Preventing HPV?". University of Iowa Student Health Service/Health Iowa. મૂળ માંથી 2010-03-14 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2009-07-26.
- ↑ Wilkinson D, Ramjee G, Tholandi M, Rutherford G (2002). Wilkinson, David (સંપાદક). "Nonoxynol-9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of sexually transmitted infections by women from men". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003939. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003939. PMID 12519623.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- ↑ Williams, M. Healthy Choices for Fertility Control. CreateSpace, Scotts Valley, CA, 2009. ISBN 1448664721
- ↑ "Male STI check-up video". Channel 4. 2008. મેળવેલ 2009-01-22.
- ↑ 'The Cringe Report' સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૩-૦૫-૧૩ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન By Susan Quilliam. Posted: 06/28/2011; J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2011;37(2):110-112.
- ↑ Expedited Partner Therapy in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (2 February 2006) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention
- ↑ "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2004. મેળવેલ Nov. 11, 2009. Check date values in:
- ↑ Mary-Ann Shafer, Anna-Barbara Moscicki (2006). "Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2006": 1–8. Cite journal requires
- ↑ "STD Statistics Worldwide". Avert.org. મેળવેલ 2011-01-09.
- ↑ "U.S. Medicine Information Central". મૂળ માંથી 2009-07-05 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2012-01-15.
- ↑ "One In Four Teenage Girls In U.S. Has Sexually Transmitted Disease, CDC Study Shows". Science Daily. March 12, 2008.
- ↑ "Sex Infections Found in Quarter of Teenage Girls". The New York Times. March 12, 2008.
- ↑ "CDC study says at least 1 in 4 teen girls has a sexually transmitted disease; HPV most common". The Oklahoman. March 11, 2008.
- ↑ UNAIDS, WHO (2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). મૂળ (PDF) માંથી 2008-05-27 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-03-12. Unknown parameter
- ↑ "Obama Ends U.S. Travel Ban On Visitors, Immigrants With HIV-AIDS". ABC News. October 30, 2009.
- ↑ "Report: Black U.S. AIDS rates rival some African nations". CNN.com. July 29, 2008.
- ↑ "Hepatitis: Type B (caused by hepatitis B virus) સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૦-૦૫-૨૩ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન". Minnesota Department of Health.
- ↑ "Hepatitis B સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૦-૦૩-૧૫ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન". U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- ↑ "FAQ about Hepatitis B". Stanford School of Medicine. 2008-07-10. મૂળ માંથી 2009-02-09 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2009-09-19.
- ↑ Oriel, J.D. (1994). The Scars of Venus: A History of Venereology. London: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 354019844X.
- ↑ CBC News Staff (2008). "Study traces origins of syphilis in Europe to New World". મૂળ સંગ્રહિત માંથી 2008-01-16 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-01-15. Unknown parameter
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- ↑ Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton. પૃષ્ઠ 210. ISBN 848306667X.
- ↑ Archives in London and the M25 area (AIM25 સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૦૬-૦૪-૧૦ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન) London Lock Hospital records સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૭-૦૨-૨૮ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન
- ↑ Gilbert MT, Rambaut A, Wlasiuk G, Spira TJ, Pitchenik AE, Worobey M (2007). "The emergence of HIV/AIDS in the Americas and beyond". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (47): 18566–70. doi:10.1073/pnas.0705329104. PMC 2141817. PMID 17978186. મેળવેલ March 20, 2010. Unknown parameter
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Further reading[ફેરફાર કરો]
- Aral, Sevgi O (2008). Behavioral Interventions for Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. : Springer Singapore Pte. Limited. ISBN 9780387857688ઢાંચો:Inconsistent citations Cite has empty unknown parameter:
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- Faro, Sebastian (2003). Sexually transmitted diseases in women. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0397513038ઢાંચો:Inconsistent citations Cite has empty unknown parameter:
|coauthor=(મદદ)CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Ford, Carol A (2009). Living with Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Facts On File. ISBN 9780816076727ઢાંચો:Inconsistent citations Unknown parameter
|author=suggested) (મદદ)CS1 maint: postscript (link)
- Sehgal, Virendra N (2003). Sexually Transmitted Diseases (4th આવૃત્તિ). Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers. ISBN 8180611051ઢાંચો:Inconsistent citations Cite has empty unknown parameter:
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- Shoquist, Jennifer (2003). The encyclopedia of sexually transmitted diseases. Facts On File. ISBN 0816048819ઢાંચો:Inconsistent citations Unknown parameter
|author=suggested) (મદદ)CS1 maint: postscript (link)
External links[ફેરફાર કરો]
- CDC Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines - 2006
- STD photo library સંગ્રહિત ૨૦૧૦-૦૭-૨૧ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન at Dermnet
- UNFPA: Breaking the Cycle of Sexually Transmitted Infections at UNFPA
- Sexually Transmitted Infections from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- STDs In Color: Sexually Transmitted Disease Facts and Photos
- : Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the U.S.