ઢાંચો:Citation

વિકિપીડિયામાંથી
આના પર જાવ: ભ્રમણ, શોધો
Template documentation[view] [edit] [history] [purge]
For the (સંદર્ભ આપો) template, see {{Citation needed}}.

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

If invoked with the right parameters, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{cite book}} and {{cite web}}. The default behavior sometimes differs from that of the Cite templates; for example, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates do not (although they can be made to do so), and this template by default uses commas to separate some fields that the Cite templates separate with periods.

All parameter names are lowercase.

Anchored citations[ફેરફાર કરો]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template. If an empty |ref= is given, no anchor is generated; this is the default for the Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}}. You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[ફેરફાર કરો]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R.H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372 }}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R.H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372
       

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "ઢાંચો:Harvid".

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=The Ego and the Id |year=1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki #time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats but has known problems, so when in doubt it is safer to use |year=.

IDs must be unique[ફેરફાર કરો]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

     , PMID 18381511
      , http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/121/4/e821 
     , PMID 18595965
      , http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/122/1/e202 

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g., "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Citing books[ફેરફાર કરો]

Parameters (all are optional)[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{Citation
|last=
|first=
|author=
|authorlink=
|coauthors=
|firstn=,lastn=,authorn=
|author-separator=
|editor=
|editorn=
|editorn-last=
|editorn-first=
|editor-link=
|editorn-link=
|others=
|title=
|url=
|archiveurl=
|archivedate=
|format=
|accessdate=
|edition=
|series=
|volume=
|date=
|origyear=
|year=
|month=
|publisher=
|location=
|language=
|isbn=
|oclc=
|doi=
|doi_brokendate=
|bibcode=
|id=
|page=
|pages=
|nopp=
|at=
|chapter=
|chapterurl=
|quote=
|laysummary=
|laydate=
|separator=
|postscript=
|lastauthoramp=
|ref=
}}
  • last (or last1): The author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The author's first or given name(s).
  • author (or author1): The author's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2, author3, author4: The second, third, and fourth authors' names, if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • author-separator: override the default semi-colon that separates authors' names.
  • author-name-separator: override the default comma that separates authors' names.
  • display-authors: Truncate the list of authors at an arbitrary point with "et al". Still include the first 9 authors to allow metadata to be generated.
  • publication-date (or date): Date[n ૧] of publication.
  • date: Date[n ૧] of authorship, if different from date of publication. If only date is used, it will be treated as the date of publication.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • origyear: Year of first publication, if different.
  • title: Title of the book. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
  • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book.
  • series: The book series of which this book is a part.
  • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • place: City in which the work was made, if different from the city of publication. If only place is used, it will be treated as the city of publication.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
  • pages: For use when multiple pages are cited. Adds "pp." before the page numbers. Do not use with page.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • nopp: if set to any value, page=/pages= do not generate 'p.' or 'pp.'. E.g. nopp=true. Using at= has the same effect.
  • at: Position within the resource when page=/pages= is inappropriate, e.g. at=para. 14 (when citing a source without page numbers) or at=02:56 (a film or audio timestamp), or at=no. 456 (something in a numbered list). This parameter is ignored if page=/pages= is specified.
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • isbn: Use this parameter if the book has an ISBN.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
    • doi_brokendate: Date[n ૧] on which the DOI was observed to be not functioning.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the book can be found.
  • archive parameters (if used, must be used both of them together)
    • archiveurl: The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if (or in case) the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite and Archive.org.
    • archivedate: Date when the item was archived. Should not be wikilinked.
  • accessdate: Date[n ૧] when the url was accessed.
  • separator: specifies the punctuation mark used to separate certain fields. This defaults to a comma; the 'Cite xxx' family of templates uses a period.
  • laysummary: URL of a lay summary, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
  • laydate: The date[n ૧] of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
  • postscript: Set terminal punctuation. Omit or leave blank to remove the trailing full stop. Punctuation specified by this parameter will appear within the cite span, and consequently before any icons added by metadata-using software (e.g. library browser plugins). Hence this parameter should be used instead of manually appending data to the citation. This parameter is ignored if |quote= is specified, when |postscript=. is forced.
  • lastauthoramp: If supplied, whether or not assigned a value, places an ampersand (&) before the last name of final author, if more than one author is supplied. Recommended usage is lastauthoramp=yes.
  • ref: ID for Harvard references; see Harvard references to citations.

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

One author
{{ Citation
 | last=Turner
 | first=O.
 | title=History of the Pioneer
Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's
Purchase, and Morris' Reserve
 | publisher=William Alling
 | place=Rochester, New York
 | year=1851
 | url = http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851
 }}
Turner, O. (1851), History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, and Morris' Reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851 
Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{ Citation
 | last1=Lincoln
 | first1=A.
 | last2=Washington
 | first2=G.
 | last3=Adams
 | first3=J.
 | lastauthoramp=yes
 | title=All the Presidents' Names
 | publisher=The Pentagon
 | place=Home Base, New York
 | volume=XII
 | edition=2nd
 | year=2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Citing journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[ફેરફાર કરો]

Parameters[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | publication-date =
 | date =
 | year =
 | title =
 | periodical =
 | series =
 | publication-place =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | page =
 | at =
 | url =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | issn =
 | pmid =
 | pmc =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | accessdate =
 | postscript =
 | ref =
}}
ઢાંચો:Citation parameter legend

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

Journal article
{{Citation
 | last=Hill
 | first=Marvin S.
 | title=Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=12
 | issue=2
 | year=1976
 | pages=1–8
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
 }}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties", BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
 | last=Smith
 | first=Joseph III
 | author-link=Joseph Smith III
 | title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma
 | newspaper=The Saints' Herald
 | publication-place=Plano, IL
 | volume=26
 | issue=19
 | date=October 1, 1879
 | year=1879
 | month=October
 | page=289
 | url=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289, http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179 

Citing edited books, or parts of edited books, including encyclopedias and encyclopedia articles[ફેરફાર કરો]

Parameters[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | year =
 | date =
 | publication-date =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | title =
 | edition =
 | series =
 | place =
 | publication-place =
 | publisher =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | url =
 | ref =
}}
  • last (or last1): The first author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The first author's first or given name(s).
  • author (or author1): The author's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2, author3, author4: The second, third, and fourth authors' names, if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • date: Date[n ૧] of authorship or publication.
  • publication-date: Date[n ૧] of publication (if different from date).
  • contribution (or chapter): Title of the contribution or chapter.
  • contribution-url (or chapter-url): URL of the contribution or chapter.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor1-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • title: Title of the book or compilation. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book or compilation.
  • place (or location): The place where the article, encyclopedia entry, or other included item was created. Usually, this is collective work's city of publication; if not, then use the separate publication-place parameter. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • publication-place. The place where the collective work was published (if different from place or location).
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • isbn: Use this parameter if the book or compilation has an ISBN.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the source being cited can be found.
  • accessdate: Date[n ૧] when the url was accessed. The access date is only shown if "|url=" is used. The "|accessdate=" has no effect if "|contribution-url=" is used.
  • ref: ID for Harvard references; see Harvard references to citations.

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
 | last=Bidamon
 | first=Emma Smith
 | author-link=Emma Hale Smith
 | chapter=Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
 | date=March 27, 1876
 | year=1876
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
 }}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, 1996, ISBN 1–56085–072–8
       
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
 }}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1–56085–072–8
       
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | author-link = Martin Kramer
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | publication-date = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | year = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 

Citing contributions, republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[ફેરફાર કરો]

Parameters[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | year =
 | date =
 | publication-date =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | title =
 | periodical =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publication-place =
 | publisher =
 | id =
 | issn =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | url =
 | accessdate =
 | ref =
}}
  • last (or last1): The first author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The first author's first or given name(s).
  • author (or author1): The author's name, if not in the last/first format.
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2, author3, author4: The second, third, and fourth authors' names, if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • date: Date of authorship or publication.
  • publication-date: Date of publication (if different from date).
  • contribution (or chapter): Title of the contribution or chapter.
  • contribution-url (or chapter-url): URL of the contribution or chapter.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor2-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • title: Title of the book or compilation. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • periodical (or journal, newspaper, magazine): Name of the periodical.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of the journal.
  • issue (or number): The issue number of the journal.
  • pages (optional): The pages in the issue where the article may be found.
  • place (or location): The place where the article, encyclopedia entry, or other included item was created. Usually, this is collective work's city of publication; if not, then use the separate publication-place parameter. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • publication-place. The place where the collective work was published (if different from place or location).
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • issn: The eight-digit International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) identifying the journal.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the book or compilation can be found.
  • accessdate: Date[n ૧] when the url was accessed.
  • ref: ID for Harvard references; see Harvard references to citations.

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
 | last=Knight
 | first=Joseph, Sr.
 | year=1833
 | editor-last=Jessee
 | editor-first=Dean
 | title=Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=17
 | issue=1
 | publication-date=1976
 | pages=35
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
 }}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History", BYU Studies 17 (1): 35, 1976, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
 | last=Klingensmith
 | first=Philip
 | contribution=Affidavit
 | year=1872
 | date=September 5, 1872
 | place=Lincoln County, Nevada
 | title=Mountain Meadows Massacre
 | editor-last=Toohy
 | editor-first=Dennis J.
 | journal=Corinne Daily Reporter
 | publication-date=September 24, 1872
 | publication-place=Corinne, Utah
 | volume=5
 | issue=252
 | pages=1
 | contribution-url=http://
udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
 }}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), Affidavit, written at Lincoln County, Nevada, in Toohy, Dennis J., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah) 5 (252): 1, September 24, 1872, http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359 

Citing patents[ફેરફાર કરો]

Parameters (all are optional)[ફેરફાર કરો]

{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "[" for "[" and "]" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.

Examples[ફેરફાર કરો]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}
US 6266706, ઢાંચો:Citation/authors, "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Dates[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. ૧.૦ ૧.૧ ૧.૨ ૧.૩ ૧.૪ ૧.૫ ૧.૬ ૧.૭ ૧.૮
    • The format of dates in the references of an article should use a consistent and unambiguous style. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include:
    • 2009
    • 2009-09-14
    • 14 September 2009
    • September 14, 2009 (with comma)
    • 2009 Sep 14
    • September 2009
    • Sept./Oct. 2009
    • As indicated above, month names are sometimes abbreviated (e.g., September to "Sept" or "Sept." or "Sep" or "Sep.")
    • Dates should not be linked in references.
    • Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)#Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[ફેરફાર કરો]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Citation templates and tools for a list of tools which can help create a reference in the 'citation' format.

COinS[ફેરફાર કરો]

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

Additional parameters[ફેરફાર કરો]

ઢાંચો:AuthorMask doc

Template Data[ફેરફાર કરો]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

TemplateData for Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters

Parameter Description Type Status
author surname last

surname of the author of the cited material

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author given name first

given name (first name) of the author of the cited material

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
title of source title

Title of source; displays in italics.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
date of source date

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
url of source url

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
1 1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
2 2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
3 3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-surname inventor-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-surname inventor1-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-last inventor-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-last inventor1-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor inventor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent1 invent1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent-1 invent-1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
country-code country-code
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-surname inventor2-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-last inventor2-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2 inventor2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent2 invent2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-surname inventor3-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-last inventor3-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3 inventor3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent3 invent3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-surname inventor4-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-last inventor4-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4 inventor4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
invent4 invent4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-given inventor-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-given inventor1-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor-first inventor-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor1-first inventor1-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-given inventor2-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor2-first inventor2-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-given inventor3-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor3-first inventor3-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-given inventor4-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventor4-first inventor4-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink1 inventorlink1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink inventorlink
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink2 inventorlink2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink3 inventorlink3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
inventorlink4 inventorlink4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
country country
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-number publication-number
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
patent-number patent-number
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
number number
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
description description
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
status status
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-date publication-date
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pubdate pubdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issue-date issue-date
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
gdate gdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
year year
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
fdate fdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pridate pridate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
assign1 assign1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
assign2 assign2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ref ref
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
separator separator
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
quote quote
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
postscript postscript
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-separator author-separator
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-mask author-mask
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authormask authormask
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last1 last1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname1 surname1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author1 author1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author author
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authors authors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last2 last2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname2 surname2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author2 author2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last3 last3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname3 surname3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author3 author3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last4 last4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname4 surname4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author4 author4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last5 last5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname5 surname5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author5 author5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last6 last6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname6 surname6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author6 author6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last7 last7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname7 surname7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author7 author7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last8 last8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname8 surname8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author8 author8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
last9 last9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
surname9 surname9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author9 author9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first1 first1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given1 given1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first2 first2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given2 given2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first3 first3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given3 given3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first4 first4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given4 given4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first5 first5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given5 given5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first6 first6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given6 given6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first7 first7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given7 given7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first8 first8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given8 given8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
first9 first9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
given9 given9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-link author-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author1-link author1-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink authorlink
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink1 authorlink1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author2-link author2-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink2 authorlink2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author3-link author3-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink3 authorlink3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author4-link author4-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink4 authorlink4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author5-link author5-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink5 authorlink5
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author6-link author6-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink6 authorlink6
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author7-link author7-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink7 authorlink7
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author8-link author8-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink8 authorlink8
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author9-link author9-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
authorlink9 authorlink9
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
coauthor coauthor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
coauthors coauthors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
origyear origyear
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
month month
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
trans_chapter trans_chapter
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
trans_title trans_title
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
type type
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
archiveurl archiveurl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
deadurl deadurl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
series series
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
version version
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
journal journal
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
periodical periodical
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
newspaper newspaper
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
magazine magazine
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
work work
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
volume volume
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issue issue
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pages pages
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
page page
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
at at
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
nopp nopp
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter chapter
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
contribution contribution
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter-url chapter-url
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapterurl chapterurl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
contribution-url contribution-url
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
chapter-format chapter-format
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
others others
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
edition edition
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
place place
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
location location
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publication-place publication-place
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
publisher publisher
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-last editor-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-surname editor-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-last editor1-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-surname editor1-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1 editor1
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor editor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editors editors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-last editor2-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-surname editor2-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2 editor2
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-last editor3-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-surname editor3-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3 editor3
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-last editor4-last
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-surname editor4-surname
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4 editor4
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-first editor-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-given editor-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-first editor1-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-given editor1-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-first editor2-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-given editor2-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-first editor3-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-given editor3-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-first editor4-first
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-given editor4-given
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor-link editor-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor1-link editor1-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor2-link editor2-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor3-link editor3-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
editor4-link editor4-link
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
language language
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
in in
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
format format
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
arxiv arxiv
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
asin asin
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ASIN ASIN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
asin-tld asin-tld
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
bibcode bibcode
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi doi
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
DOI DOI
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi_inactivedate doi_inactivedate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
doi_brokendate doi_brokendate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
isbn isbn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ISBN ISBN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
issn issn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ISSN ISSN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
jfm jfm
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
JFM JFM
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
jstor jstor
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
JSTOR JSTOR
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
lccn lccn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
LCCN LCCN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
mr mr
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
MR MR
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
oclc oclc
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OCLC OCLC
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ol ol
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OL OL
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
osti osti
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
OSTI OSTI
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pmc pmc
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
PMC PMC
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
pmid pmid
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
PMID PMID
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
rfc rfc
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
RFC RFC
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ssrn ssrn
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
SSRN SSRN
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
zbl zbl
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
id id
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
ID ID
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
access-date access-date
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
accessdate accessdate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laysummary laysummary
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laysource laysource
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
laydate laydate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
author-name-separator author-name-separator
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
lastauthoramp lastauthoramp
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
display-authors display-authors
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional
archivedate archivedate
Default
empty
Example
empty
Auto value
empty
String optional