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વાવ (અંગ્રેજી:Stepwells, હિંદી: बावड़ी, बावली)એ કુવાનો જ એક પ્રકાર છે, જેમાં કુવો પગથીયા સાથે જોડવામાં આવેલો હોય છે, અથવા તો બીજા શબ્દોમાં કહીએ તો કુવામાંનાં પાણી સુધી પગથીયા દ્વારા પહોંચી શકાય તેવો કુવો. વાવ મોટે ભાગે પરિસરમાં બાંધેલી અને સુરક્ષિત હોય છે તથા મહદંશે જોવા મળતી વાવો શિલ્પકલાનાં ઉત્કૃષ્ટ નમુનાઓ છે, જેમાં સુંદર કોતરણી કરેલી હોય છે. અમુક વાવો એવી પણ છે જેમાં એવી ગોઠવણ કરેલી હોય છે કે બળદની મદદથી ચક્ર વડે કુવામાંથી પાણી ખેંચીને પહેલા કે બીજા માળ સુધી પહોંચાડે.
સામાન્ય રીતે પશ્ચિમ ભારતમાં વાવ ઘણી જગ્યાએ જોવા મળે છે. આ ઉપરાંત અન્ય વધુ ઊંડાઇએ પાણી મળતું હોય એવા શુષ્ક વિસ્તારોમાં જેમાં પાકિસ્તાનનો પણ સમાવેશ થાય છે, ત્યાં પણ વાવ બંધાયેલી જોવા મળે છે. વાવનું બાંધકામ આમ તો પાણીનો સરળતાથી ઉપયોગ કરવા માટે જ કરવામાં આવતું હતું, આમ છતાં કેટલીક જગ્યાઓ પર આ બાંધકામ વેળા આ વાવ મહત્વપૂર્ણ સ્થાપ્ત્ય બને અને વ્યક્તિ કે રાજ્યની ઓળખ બની રહે તે રીતે કરવામાં આવતું હતું.
A number of distinct names, sometimes local, exist for stepwells. In Hindi speaking regions, they include names based on baudi (including bawdi, bawri, baoli, bavadi, bavdi). In Gujarati and Marwari language, they are usually called vav.
All forms of the stepwell may be considered to be particular examples of the many types of storage and irrigation tanks that were developed in India, mainly to cope with seasonal fluctuations in water availability. A basic difference between stepwells on the one hand, and tanks and wells on the other, was to make it easier for people to reach the ground water, and to maintain and manage the well.
In some related types of structure (johara wells), ramps were built to allow cattle to reach the water.
The majority of surviving stepwells originally also served a leisure purpose, as well as providing water. This was because the base of the well provided relief from daytime heat, and more such relief could be obtained if the well was covered. This led to the building of some significant ornamental and architectural features, often associated with dwellings and in urban areas. It also ensured their survival as monuments.
Stepwell construction is known to have gone on from at least 600 AD. Most existing stepwells date from the last 800 years. There are suggestions that they may have originated much earlier, and there are some suggestions that precursors to them can be seen in the Indus Valley civilisation.
ભારતની અમુક પ્રખ્યાત વાવો[ફેરફાર કરો]
Numbers of surviving stepwells can be found in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. There are also smaller numbers elsewhere including in the British isles where the water source is close to the surface [now covered over at Rooskey in Co. Leitrim}. Significant ones include:
- રાણકી વાવ, પાટણ, ગુજરાત
- અડાલજની વાવ, અડાલજ, ગુજરાત
- nizamuddin auliya's bawri[situated near the nizamuddin auliya dargah]
- Agrasen ki Baoli, New Delhi
- Rajon ki baoli, New Delhi
- Gandak ki Baoli, New Delhi
- Chandinath ki vav of Bhinmal.
- In Neemrana (Rajasthan), when arriving from New Delhi
- Raniji ki Baori in Bundi, Rajasthan; Bundi has over 60 baolis in and around the town. ask locals because they are not shown on any map.
- The Pushkarani monument at Vijayanagara, Karnataka
- Some in Amber, including the 'Panna Meena ka Kund' and 'Sarai Bawdi'
- Several existing structures in Delhi, including a recent pre-Mughal finding in the Red Fort
- The Sharenshwar ni vav at Halvad, Gujarat.
- The great Mughal emperor Babur recorded in his memoirs that he built a baoli in Agra Fort, India. The baoli was completed after the battle of Khanua in 1527 and Babur placed an inscription there to this effect. Babur actually used two "Rehant's" to carry the water to a higher level. This was altered when Akbar built his palaces (1565-1573). It was necessary to use a third Rehant to raise water. Therefore a three-storeyed water pavilion was erected at the mouth of the second well and three overhead tanks were built on its roof. Water from Babur's baoli was conducted into these tanks. This plan was again altered when Shah Jahani Mahal was built. Massive walls were raised in the middle of Babur's baoli and the rooms were closed up. Alternative arrangements of water supply to the overhead tanks was made. Babur's baoli is now buried in the basement apartments is only partially accessible. The overhead tanks with inscribed tablets have survived intact.
- Mandu has many bavdis scattered on the plateau (some say there are over 1000 baolis in mandu but atleast a few still survive)
- There are many bavdis scattered all over northern india, especially in rajasthan, madhya pradesh and gujarat.
The first rock-cut step wells in India date from 200-400 AD. Subsequently, the wells at Dhank (550-625 AD) and construction of stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 AD) takes place. The city of Mohenjo-daro has wells which may be the predecessors of the step well; as many as 700 wells have been discovered in just one section of the city leading scholars to believe that 'cylindrical brick lined wells' were invented by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.
બાહય કડીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]
- Rima Hooja: "Channeling Nature: Hydraulics, Traditional Knowledge Systems, And Water Resource Management in India – A Historical Perspective"
- Livingston, Morna & Beach, Milo (2002). Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568983247.
- Jutta Jain Neubauer The Stepwells of Gujarat: An Art-historical Perspective (2001)
- Morna Livingston Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India (Princeton 2002)
- Stepwells in India at the Open Directory Project
- Livingston & Beach, page xxiii
- Livingston & Beach, page 19
- "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent - glossary". Retrieved 2006-12-18.