સંસદીય ગણતંત્ર

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પ્રશાશન ની પ્રણાલી
પ્રશાશન ના ગણતંત્રવાદી સ્વરુપો:
  સંસદ થી અલગ એક કાર્યકારી રાષ્ટ્રપતિપણાં સાથે રાષ્ટ્રપતિય ગણરાજ્ય
  સંસદ પર નભતા રાષ્ટ્રપતિ સાથે સંસદીય ગણતંત્ર
  વહીવટી રાષ્ટ્રપતિ અને સરકારના અલગ વડા બંને સાથે અર્ધ-રાષ્ટ્રપ્રમુખિય ગણતંત્ર, જે સંસદને દોરવણી આપે છે, જે રાષ્ટ્રપતિ દ્વારા નિયુક્ત થાય છે.
  ઔપચારિક/ગૈર-વહિવટી પ્રમુખ સાથે સંસદીય પ્રજાસત્તાક, જ્યાં એક અલગ વડા અધિકારી કાર્યકારીઓની દોરવણી કરે છે.
Monarchical forms of government:
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial/non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive and/or legislative power
  Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive
  One-party states where the dominant role of a political party is codified in the constitution
  Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorship)
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional government or unclear political situations)
Map of different parliamentary systems      Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.      Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature.      Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament.

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

List of modern parliamentary republics[ફેરફાર કરો]

Parliamentary Republics
Country Head of State Elected By Cameral Structure Parliamentary Republic Adopted Formerly
 Albania Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1991 One-party state
 Armenia Parliament, by absolute majority Unicameral 2018[note ૧] Semi-presidential republic
 Austria Direct election, by second-round system Bicameral 1945 One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)
 Bangladesh Parliament Unicameral 1991[note ૨] Presidential republic
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote Bicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
બલ્ગેરિયા Bulgaria Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1991 One-party state
ક્રોએશિયા Croatia Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 2000 Semi-presidential republic
 Czech Republic Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority) Bicameral 1993 One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia)
 
Dominica
Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1978 Associated state of the United Kingdom
 EstoniaEstonia Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral 1991[note ૩] One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
 EthiopiaEthiopia Parliament, by two-thirds majority Bicameral 1991 One-party state
 FijiFiji Parliament, by majority Unicameral 2014 Military dictatorship
 FinlandFinland Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 2000[note ૪] Semi-presidential republic
 GermanyGermany Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority Bicameral 1949[note ૫] One-party state
 GreeceGreece Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1975 Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy
 HungaryHungary Parliament, by absolute majority Unicameral 1990 One-party state
 IcelandIceland Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral 1944 Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)
 IndiaIndia Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral 1950 Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
 IraqIraq Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral[૧] 2005 One-party state
 IrelandIreland Direct election, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral 1919[note ૬] Constitutional monarchy (Part of the British Empire)
 IsraelIsrael Parliament, by majority Unicameral 2001 Semi-parliamentary republic
 ItalyItaly Parliament, by absolute majority Bicameral 1946 Constitutional monarchy
 KosovoKosovo Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,
if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots
Unicameral 2008 UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)
 KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 2010 Presidential republic
 LatviaLatvia Parliament Unicameral 1991[note ૭] One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
 LebanonLebanon Parliament Unicameral 1941 Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)
મેસેડોનિયા Macedonia Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1991 One-party state (part of the Yugoslavia)
 MaltaMalta Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1974 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[૨])[૩]
 MauritiusMauritius Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1992 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[૪][૫][૬])
 MoldovaMoldova Direct election, by second-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
Unicameral 2001 Semi-presidential republic
 MontenegroMontenegro Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1992 One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
 NepalNepal Parliament and state legislators Bicameral[૭] 2015[note ૮] Constitutional monarchy
 PakistanPakistan Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral 2010[૮][૯] Semi-presidential republic
 SamoaSamoa Parliament Unicameral 1960 Trust Territory of New Zealand
 SerbiaSerbia Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
 SingaporeSingapore Direct election (since 1993) Unicameral 1965 State of Malaysia
 SlovakiaSlovakia Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament) Unicameral 1993 One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia)
 SloveniaSlovenia Direct election, by second-round system Bicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
 SomaliaSomalia Parliament Bicameral 2012[note ૯] One-party state
 Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago Parliament Bicameral 1976 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[૧૦])
 VanuatuVanuatu Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority Unicameral 1980 British–French condominium (New Hebrides)
Parliamentary Republics with a "Mixed-Republican" System
Country Head of State Elected By Cameral Structure Parliamentary Republic Adopted Formerly
 BotswanaBotswana Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1966 British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)
 KiribatiKiribati Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral 1979 Protectorate
 Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands Parliament Bicameral 1979 UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
ઢાંચો:Country data MicronesiaMicronesia Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1986 UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
 MyanmarMyanmar Parliament, by an electoral college Bicameral 2010 Military dictatorship
 NauruNauru Parliament Unicameral 1968 Australian Trust Territory
 San MarinoSan Marino Parliament Unicameral 301 Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)
 South AfricaSouth Africa Parliament, by majority Bicameral 1961 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[૧૧][૧૨][૧૩])
 SurinameSuriname Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1987 Military dictatorship
  SwitzerlandSwitzerland Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority Bicameral 1848 Confederation

List of former parliamentary republics[ફેરફાર કરો]

Country Year became a parliamentary republic Year status changed Changed to Status changed due to
Czechoslovakia First Czechoslovak Republic 1920 1939 One-party state Munich agreement
ઑસ્ટ્રિયા First Austrian Republic 1920 1929 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
 Brazil 1961 1963 Presidential system Referendum
 Burma (present-day Myanmar) 1948 1962 Military dictatorship 1962 Burmese coup d'état
France French Third Republic 1870 1940 Presidential system World War II German Occupation
France French Fourth Republic 1946 1958 Semi-presidential system Political instability
 Guyana 1970 1980 Presidential system Constitutional amendment
હંગેરી Hungary 1946 1949 One-party state Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary
 
Indonesia
1945 1959 Presidential system Constitutional amendment
 IsraelIsrael 1948 1996 Semi-parliamentary system Constitutional amendment
દક્ષિણ કોરિયા Second Republic of South Korea 1960 1961 Presidential system May 16 coup
લિથુઆનિયા Lithuanian First Republic 1920 1926 One-party state 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état[note ૧૦]
ઢાંચો:NGRNigeria 1963 1966 Military dictatorship
(which led in 1979
to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
Coup d'état
 PakistanPakistan 1956 1958 Military dictatorship 1958 Pakistani coup d'état
1973 1978 1977 Pakistani coup d'état
1988 1999 1999 Pakistani coup d'état
Poland Second Polish Republic 1919 1939 One-party state Invasion of Poland
પોર્ટુગલ First Portuguese Republic 1911 1926 Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
May 28 coup
ફીલીપાઈન્સ First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic) 1899 1901 Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces
ઢાંચો:Country data Democratic Republic of Congo Republic of the Congo 1960 1965 Military dictatorship
(De facto One-party state)
1965 Congolese coup d'état
 RussiaRussia 1991[note ૧૧] 1993 Semi-presidential system Referendum[note ૧૨]
 RhodesiaRhodesia 1970 1979 Parliamentary system Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
ઢાંચો:Country data Spanish RepublicSpanish Republic 1931 1939 Fascist dictatorship Loss of Spanish Civil War
ઢાંચો:SRISri Lanka 1972 1978 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
સિરિયા Syrian Republic 1930 1958 One-party state Creation of the United Arab Republic
સિરિયા Syrian Arab Republic 1961 1963 One-party state 1963 Syrian coup d'état
 TurkeyTurkey 1923 2018 Presidential system Referendum
ઢાંચો:UGAUganda 1963 1966 One-party state Suspension of the constitution
 Zimbabwe RhodesiaZimbabwe Rhodesia 1979 1979 Parliamentary system Reversion to Southern Rhodesia
 ZimbabweZimbabwe 1980 1987 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

Notes[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. Changed after the 2015 referendum.
  2. Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
  3. Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  4. Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. Wiley. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048.  as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.
  5. In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. Please note that German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
  6. Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949.
  7. Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  8. Had a transitional government between 2008 and 2015.
  9. Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.
  10. In June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  11. Post of President of Russia is created, and development of separation of powers is started, some of Supreme Soviet's executive powers is transferred to new post. Before that, Russia was a Soviet republic.
  12. Preceded by crisis and armed dissolving of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, then-parliament of the Russian Federation.

References[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. Officially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.
  2. "Malta: Heads of State: 1964-1974". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  3. "British Monarch's Titles: 1867-2018". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  4. "Mauritius: Heads of State: 1968-1992". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  5. Empty citation (help) 
  6. Cahoon, Ben. "Mauritius". Worldstatesmen.org. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  7. Constitution of Nepal Archived December 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. Kiran Khalid, CNN (2010-04-09). "Pakistan lawmakers approve weakening of presidential powers". CNN.com. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  9. "'18th Amendment to restore Constitution' | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. Archived from the original on 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-14. 
  10. "Trinidad and Tobago: Heads of State: 1962-1976". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  11. "South Africa: Heads of State: 1910-1961". Archontology.org. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  12. Carlin, John (31 May 1994). "South Africa returns to the Commonwealth fold". The Independent. Retrieved 18 February 2018. 
  13. "Secession Talked by Some Anti-Republicans". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 11 October 1960. Retrieved 18 February 2018.  More than one of |work= and |newspaper= specified (help)More than one of |work= and |newspaper= specified (help)