સીદી

વિકિપીડિયાથી
આના પર જાવ: ભ્રમણ, શોધો
સીદી સ્ત્રીનું ચિત્ર, ભારતનાં કર્ણાટક રાજ્યનાં હલિયાલ જિલ્લાની વતની.

સીદી અથવા શીદી ભારતીય ઉપમહાદ્વિપમાં વસતો એક માનવ સમુદાય છે, જેમનુ મુળ વતન આફ્રિકા છે. ભારતમાં ગુજરાત, મહારાષ્ટ્ર, કર્ણાટક તથા આંધ્ર પ્રદેશ તથા પાકિસ્તાનનાં મકરાણ અને કરાંચી તેઓની વસ્તીનાં મુખ્ય કેન્દ્ર છે. તેઓની વસ્તી અંદાજે ૫૫,૦૦૦ આસપાસ હોવાનો અંદાજ છે. ગુજરાતમાં મુખ્યત્વે જુનાગઢ જિલ્લાનાં તાલાલા વિસ્તારમાં તેઓની ઘણી વસતી છે. તેઓ ’હબસી’ તરીકે પણ ઓળખાવાય છે અને તેઓને અનુસુચિત જનજાતી (ST)નો દરજ્જો મળેલો છે.[૧] ધાર્મિક દૃષ્ટીએ સીદીઓ મુખ્યત્વે મુસ્લિમ ધર્મની સુફી પરંપરાનું પાલન કરે છે. જો કે કેટલાંક હિન્દુ અને રોમન કેથૉલિક ખ્રિસ્તી પરંપરામાં પણ માન્યતા ધરાવે છે.[૨]

નામનું વ્યુત્પત્તિ શાસ્ત્ર[ફેરફાર કરો]

There are conflicting hypotheses on the origin of the name Siddi. One theory is that the word was a term of respect in North Africa, similar to the word sahib in modern India and Pakistan.(સંદર્ભ આપો) A second theory is that the term Siddi is derived from the title borne by the captains of the Arab vessels that first brought Siddi settlers to India. These captains were known as Sayyid.[૩]

Similarly, another term for Siddis, habshi (from Al-Habsh, the Arabic term for Abyssinia), is held to be derived from the common name for the captains of the Ethiopian/Abyssinian ships that also first delivered Siddi slaves to the subcontinent.[૪] The term eventually came to be applied to other Africans and not only to emancipated Siddis. In time, it came to be used to refer to their descendants as well. It is sometimes pronounced "Hafsi" and is considered an insult.[૫]

Siddis are also sometimes referred to as Afro-Indians.[૬][૭][૮] Siddis were referred to as Zanji by Arabs; in China, various transcriptions of this Arabic word were used, including Xinji (辛吉) and Jinzhi (津芝).[૯][૧૦][૧૧][૧૨]

ઇતિહાસ[ફેરફાર કરો]

A fine example of Indo-Islamic architecture, the Sidi Saiyyed Mosque in Ahmedabad, India was constructed in 1572 by Sidi Saiyyed, a slave of Sultan Ahmad Shah.[૧૩]

The first Siddis are thought to have arrived in India in 628 AD at the Bharuch port. Several others followed with the first Arab Islamic invasions of the subcontinent in 712 AD.[૧૪] The latter group are believed to have been soldiers with Muhammad bin Qasim's Arab army, and were called Zanjis.

Most Siddis, however, are believed to be the descendants of slaves, sailors, servants and merchants from East Africa who arrived and became resident in the subcontinent during the 1200-1900 AD period.[૧૫] A large influx of Siddis to the region occurred in the 17th century when Portuguese slave traders sold a number of them to local princes.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

Flag of the Siddis from Murud-Janjira an important vassal of the Mughal Empire.

In Western India (the modern Indian states of Gujarat and Maharashtra), the Siddi gained a reputation for physical strength and loyalty, and were sought out as mercenaries by local rulers, and as domestic servants and farm labor.(સંદર્ભ આપો) Some Siddis escaped slavery to establish communities in forested areas, and some even established small Siddi principalities on Janjira Island and at Jaffrabad as early as the twelfth century. A former alternative name of Janjira was Habshan (i.e., land of the Habshis). In the Delhi Sultanate period prior to the rise of the Mughals in India, Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut was a prominent Siddi slave-turned-nobleman who was a close confidant of Razia Sultana (1205–1240 CE). Although this is disputed, he may also have been her lover.[૧૬]

As a power centre, Siddis were sometimes allied with the Mughal Empire in its power-struggle with the Maratha Confederacy.(સંદર્ભ આપો) However, Malik Ambar, a prominent Siddi figure in Indian history at large, is sometimes regarded as the "military guru of the Marathas", and was deeply allied with them.[૧૭] He established the town of Khirki which later became the modern city of Aurangabad, and helped establish the Marathas as a major force in the Deccan. Later, the Marathas adapted Siddi guerrilla warfare tactics to grow their power and ultimately demolish the Mughal empire.[૧૭] Some accounts describe the Mughal emperor Jahangir as obsessed by Ambar due to the Mughal empire's consistent failures in crushing him and his Maratha cavalry, describing him derogatorily as "the black faced" and "the ill-starred" in the royal chronicles and even having a painting commissioned that showed Jahangir killing Ambar, a fantasy which was never realised in reality.[૧૮]

Most Siddis are descended from Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought by the Portuguese.[૧૯] While most of these migrants became Muslim and a small minority became Christian, very few became Hindu since they could not find themselves a position in the traditional Hindu caste hierarchy.[૨૦]

ભારતનાં સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

ગુજરાતનાં સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

Siddi Folk Dancers, at Devaliya Naka, Sasan Gir, Gujarat.

Supposedly presented as slaves by the Portuguese to the local Prince, Nawab of Junagadh, the Siddis also live around Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, the last refuge in the world of the almost extinct Asiatic Lions, in Junagadh a district of the state of Gujarat, India.[૨૧]

On the way to Deva-dungar is the quaint village of Sirvan, inhabited entirely by Siddis, a tribe of African people. They were brought 300 years ago from Africa, by the Portuguese for the Nawab of Junagadh. Today, they follow very few of their original customs, with a few exceptions like the traditional Dhamal dance.[૨૨]

Although Gujarati Siddis have adopted the language and many customs of their surrounding populations, some African traditions have been preserved. These include the Goma music and dance form, which is sometimes called Dhamaal (Gujarati: ધમાલ, fun).[૨૩] The term is believed to be derived from the Ngoma drumming and dance forms of Bantu East Africa.[૨૩] The Goma also has a spiritual significance and, at the climax of the dance, some dancers are believed to be vehicles for the presence of Siddi saints of the past.[૨૪]

કર્ણાટકનાં સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

Siddi Girl from Yellapur District, Karnataka, India.

The Siddis of Karnataka (કન્નડ: ಕರ್ನಾಟಕದ ಸಿದ್ಧಿಗಳು) (also spelled Siddhis) are an ethnic group of mainly Bantu descent that has made Karnataka their home for the last 400 years.[૧૯] There is a 50,000 strong Siddhi population across India, of which more than a third live in Karnataka. In Karnataka, they are concentrated around Yellapur, Haliyal, Ankola, Joida, Mundgod and Sirsi taluks of Uttara Kannada and in Khanapur of Belgaum and Kalghatgi of Dharwad district. Many members of the Siddis community of Karnataka had migrated to Pakistan after independence and have settled in Karachi, Sindh. The majority of the Siddhis in Karnataka are descendants of Siddhi slaves who were brought from East Africa (mostly Mozambique) and Ethiopia to Goa by the Portuguese, British and the Arabs between the 16th and 19th centuries. During the Goan Inquisition, some of these slaves were freed and some escaped into the forests of the neighbouring Karnataka state. It has been reported that these Siddis believe that Barack Obama shares their genepool and that they wanted to gift a bottle of honey to him on his visit to India in 2010.[૨૫]

હૈદરાબાદ, ભારતનાં સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

In the 18th century, a Siddi community was established in Hyderabad State by the Arab Siddi diaspora, who would frequently serve as cavalry guards of the Asif Jahi Nizam's irregular army. The Asif Jahi Nizams patronized them with rewards and the traditional Marfa music gained popularity and would be performed during official celebrations and ceremonies.[૨૬][૨૭][૨૮] The Siddis of Hyderabad have traditionally resided in the A.C. Guards (African Cavalry Guards) area near Masjid Rahmania, known locally as Siddi Risala.

પાકિસ્તાનનાં સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

In Pakistan, locals of Black African descent are called "Makrani", or "Sheedi". They live primarily along the Makran Coast in Balochistan (see also Makrani), and lower Sindh. In the city of Karachi, the main Sheedi centre is the area of Lyari and other nearby coastal areas.[૨૯] Technically, the Sheedi are a brotherhood or community distinct from the other Afro-Pakistanis. The Sheedis are divided into four clans, or houses: Kharadar Makan, Hyderabad Makan, Lassi Makan and Belaro Makan.[૩૦] The sufi saint Pir Mangho is regarded by many as the patron saint of the Sheedis, and the annual Sheedi Mela festival, is the key event in the Sheedi community's cultural calendar.[૩૦] Some glimpses of the rituals at Sidi/Sheedi Festival 2010 include visit to sacred alligators at Mangho pir, playing music and dance.[૩૧] Clearly, the instrument, songs and dance appear to be derived from Africa.[૩૨][૩૩]

Linguistically, Makranis are Balochi and Sindhi and speak a dialect of Urdu referred to as Makrani. In Sindh, the Sheedis have traditionally intermarried only with people such as the Mallahs (fisherpeople), Khaskeli (laborers), Khatri (dyeing caste) and Kori (clothmakers).

Famous Sheedis include the historic Sindhi army leader Hoshu Sheedi[૩૪] and Urdu poet Noon Meem Danish.[૩૫][૩૬] Sheedis are also well known for their excellence in sports, especially in football and boxing. The musical anthem of the ruling Pakistan Peoples Party, "Bija Teer", is a Balochi song in the musical style of the Sheedis with Black African style rhythm and drums.[૩૭] Younis Jani is a popular Sheedi singer famous for singing an Urdu version of the reggaeton song "Papi chulo... (te traigo el mmmm...)."[૩૮]

Most Makranis in Pakistan have Black Africans links from the female side. Many Sindhi feudals imported African female slaves; so did the Omani Arabs of Gwadar, a coastal city of Balochistan which was in control of Oman in the 17th century.

નિમ્ન સિંધનાં સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

Sawan Qambrani, resident of village Syed Matto Shah, Tehsil Bulri Shah Karim, District Tando Muhammad Khan, Sindh

Sheedis are largely populated in different towns and villages in lower Sindh. They are very active in cultural activities and organise annual festivals, like, Habash Festival, with the support of several community organisations. In the local culture, when there is a dance it is not performed by some selected few and watched idly by others but it is participated by all the people present there, ending difference between the performers and the audience.

Sheedis in Sindh also proudly call themselves the Qambranis, ઉર્દુ: قمبرانی ; ઢાંચો:Lang-sd. [૩૯]

આનુવંશિકતા[ફેરફાર કરો]

Recent advances in genetic analyses have helped shed some light on the ethnogenesis of the Siddi. Genetic genealogy, although a novel tool that uses the genes of modern populations to trace their ethnic and geographic origins, has also helped clarify the possible background of the modern Siddi.

વાય રંગસૂત્ર (Y DNA)[ફેરફાર કરો]

A Y-chromosome study by Shah et al. (2011) tested Siddi individuals in India for paternal lineages. The authors observed the E1b1a haplogroup, which is frequent amongst Bantu peoples, in about 42% and 34% of Siddis from Karnataka and Gujarat, respectively. Around 14% of Siddis from Karnataka and 35% of Siddis from Gujarat also belonged to the Sub-Saharan B haplogroup. The remaining 30% of Siddi had Indian or Near Eastern-associated clades, including haplogroups H, L, J and P.[૧૯]

Thangaraj (2009) observed similar, mainly Bantu-linked paternal affinities amongst the Siddi.[૪૦]

એમ.ટી. રંગસૂત્ર (mtDNA)[ફેરફાર કરો]

According to an mtDNA study by Shah et al. (2011), the maternal ancestry of the Siddi consists of a mixture of Sub-Saharan and Indian haplogroups, reflecting substantial female gene flow from neighboring Indian populations. About 53% of the Siddis from Gujarat and 24% of the Siddis from Karnataka belonged to various Sub-Saharan macro-haplogroup L sub-clades. The latter mainly consisted of L0 and L2a sublineages associated with Bantu women. The remainder possessed Indian-specific subclades of the Eurasian haplogroups M and N, which points to recent admixture with autochthonous Indian groups.[૧૯]

ઓટોસોમલ રંગસૂત્ર (Autosomal DNA)[ફેરફાર કરો]

Narang et al. (2011) examined the autosomal DNA of Siddis in India. According to the researchers, about 58% of the Siddis' ancestry is derived from Bantu peoples. The remainder is associated with local Indo-European-speaking North and Northwest Indian populations, due to recent admixture events.[૪૧]

Similarly, Shah et al. (2011) observed that Siddis in Gujarat derive 66.90%-70.50% of their ancestry from Bantu forebears, while the Siddis in Karnataka possess 64.80%-74.40% such Southeast African ancestry. The remaining autosomal DNA components in the studied Siddi were mainly associated with local South Asian populations. According to the authors, gene flow between the Siddis' Bantu ancestors and local Indian populations was also largely unidirectional. They estimate this admixture episode's time of occurrence at within the past 200 years or eight generations.[૧૯]

જાણીતા સીદીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]

Sidis of Bombay

ચલચિત્રો[ફેરફાર કરો]

  • From Africa...To Indian Subcontinent: Sidi Music in the Indian Ocean Diaspora (2003) by Amy Catlin-Jairazbhoy, in close collaboration with Nazir Ali Jairazbhoy and the Sidi community.
  • Mon petit diable (My Little Devil) (1999) was directed by Gopi Desai. Om Puri, Pooja Batra, Rushabh Patni, Satyajit Sharma.
  • Razia Sultan (1983), an Indian Urdu film directed by Kamal Amrohi, is based on the life of Razia Sultan (played by Hema Malini) (1205–1240), the only female Sultan of Delhi (1236–1240), and her speculated love affair with the Abyssinian slave Jamal-ud-Din Yakut (played by Dharmendra). He was referred to in the movie as a habshee.

સંદર્ભો[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. Kumar Suresh Singh, Rajendra Behari Lal (2003), Gujarat, Anthropological Survey of India (Popular Prakashan), ISBN 81-7991-106-3, http://books.google.com/?id=IWrTs5yt1DkC, "... At present the Siddis are living in the western coast of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Karnataka states. Their main concentration is in Junagadh district of Rajkot division. They are a scheduled tribe. According to the 1981 census, the population of the Siddi tribe is 54,291, The Siddi speak Gujarati language within their kin circle as well as with the outsiders. Gujarati script is used ..."
  2. Shanti Sadiq Ali (1996), The African dispersal in the Deccan, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 81-250-0485-8, http://books.google.com/?id=-3CPc22nMqIC, "... Among the Siddi families in Karnataka there are Catholics, Hindus and Muslims ... It was a normal procedure for the Portuguese to baptise African slaves ... After living for generations among Hindus they considered themselves to be Hindus ... The Siddi Hindus owe allegiance to Saudmath ..."
  3. Vijay Prashad (2002), Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-5011-3, http://books.google.com/?id=xiO6zUS9gigC, "... since the captains of the African and Arab vessels bore the title Sidi (from Sayyid, or the lineage of the prophet Muhammad), the African settlers on the Indian mainland came to be called Siddis ..."
  4. Vijay Prashad, Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, (Beacon Press: 2002), p.8
  5. Ronald Segal (2002), Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora, Macmillan, ISBN 0-374-52797-0, http://books.google.com/?id=fdh3GYnXvrAC, "... Ethiopians were particularly favored; the term Habashi or Habshi— from the Arabic word for Ethiopian – came to be applied to other Africans as well, and referred not only to the freed but to their descendants ..."
  6. Ali Al'Amin Mazrui, Toby Kleban Levine (1986), The Africans: a reader, Praeger, ISBN 0-03-006209-8, http://books.google.com/?id=SpQEAQAAIAAJ, "... continue to exist in three main communities. These Afro-Indians, known as "Siddis" ..."
  7. Joseph E. Harris (1971), The African presence in Asia: consequences of the East African slave trade, Northwestern University Press, ISBN 0-8101-0348-6, http://books.google.com/?id=l8G4AAAAIAAJ, "... In fact, it is frequently said that Afro-Indians in western Gujarat are descendants of escaped slaves. ..."
  8. Ruth Simms Hamilton (2007), Routes of Passage: Rethinking the African Diaspora, Michigan State University Press, ISBN 0-87013-632-1, http://books.google.com/?id=bL2RAAAAMAAJ, "..."
  9. David Brion Davis, Challenging the boundaries of slavery, (Harvard University Press: 2006), p.12
  10. Ci Hai 7(1): 125
  11. Roland Oliver, Africa in the Iron Age: c.500 BC-1400 AD, (Cambridge University Press: 1975), p.192
  12. F.R.C. Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim Empires, (Brill: 1997), p.174
  13. Brajesh Kumar, Pilgrimage Centers of India, (Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.: 2003), p.154.
  14. Yatin Pandya, Trupti Rawal (2002), The Ahmedabad Chronicle: Imprints of a Millennium, Vastu Shilpa Foundation for Studies and Research in Environmental Design, http://books.google.com/?id=ZXJuAAAAMAAJ, "... The first Muslims in Gujarat to have arrived are the Siddis via the Bharuch port in 628 A.D. ... The major group, though, arrived in 712 A.D. via Sindh and the north ... With the founding of Ahmedabad in 1411 A.D. it became the concentrated base of the community ..."
  15. "The lost Africans of India", BBC, 2000-11-27, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1035389.stm, પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 2009-04-27, "... "The Sidis are descendants of African slaves, sailors and servants, and merchants who remained in India after arriving through the sea trade with East Africa and the Gulf", says Amy Catlin of the University of California, who is making a special study of Sidi culture. "That was a process which began in the 12th century or before, and lasted until the late 19th century" ..."
  16. Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach (2006), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-96692-2, http://books.google.com/?id=LaV-IGZ8VKIC, "... she appointed Jala ad-Din Yaqut, an Abyssinian slave, to the post of master of the stables, a position traditionally reserved for a distinguished Turk. Her partiality for Yaqut has led later historians to speculae whether there had been a sexual relationship between them, but contemporaneous sources do not indicate that this was necessarily the case ..."
  17. ૧૭.૦ ૧૭.૧ "Malik Ambar: Military guru of the Marathas", The Hindu, 2008-10-12, http://www.hindu.com/mag/2008/10/12/stories/2008101250220700.htm, પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 2009-04-27, "... Malik Ambar provided the inspiring leadership for this enterprise ... the Marathas, fostered and trained by him, would soon be a force to reckon with. Skilfully adopting the guerrilla tactic, they would bring about the downfall of Aurangzeb ..."
  18. Richard M. Eaton (2005), A Social History of the Deccan, 1300–1761: Eight Indian Lives, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-25484-1, http://books.google.com/?id=cGd2huLXEVYC, "... In his memoir for the year 1612, Jahangir calls him "Ambar, the black faced" ... the portrait reveals the emperor's profound frustration with his failure ever to vanquish Ambar: he fantasised in art what he could not accomplish on the battlefield ..."
  19. ૧૯.૦ ૧૯.૧ ૧૯.૨ ૧૯.૩ ૧૯.૪ Shah, Anish M.; et al. (15). "Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture". American Journal of Human Genetics 89 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929711002230. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 18 December 2012.
  20. Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River, Alice Albinia, W. W. Norton & Company, 2010, p. 61
  21. "Siddis stray from tradition". Retrieved 5 December 2004. 
  22. [૧]
  23. ૨૩.૦ ૨૩.૧ Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society, 28, Indian Anthropological Society, 1993, http://books.google.com/?id=UUGBAAAAMAAJ, "... The word goma is derived from the Swahili word for dance, ngoma, which in the East African ... Siddi servants used to perform goma dances with drums ..."
  24. Shihan de S. Jayasuriya, Richard Pankhurst (2003), The African diaspora in the Indian Ocean, Africa World Press, ISBN 0-86543-980-X, http://books.google.com/?id=mdpcgy_aopwC, "... At the climax, when large numbers of people are simultaneously possessed, the presence of Sidi saints among the living is experienced through the bodies chosen by the saints as vehicle. This happens during dancing sessions called damal or goma ..."
  25. Anil Budur Lulla, A Bottle of Honey for Our Brother Prez, Short Takes section, Open Magazine, October 30, 2010
  26. "‘Marfa' band of the Siddis ‘losing' its beat". Hyderabad, India: The Hindu. 10 July 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Hyderabad/article2216021.ece#. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 19 september 2011.
  27. Ababu Minda Yimene (2004). An African Indian community in Hyderabad: Siddi identity, its maintenance and Change. cuvillier verlag gottingen. pp. 209–211. ISBN 3-86537-206-6. http://books.google.ae/books?id=DigPvwHTqJ4C&pg=PA210&lpg=PA210&dq=marfa+hyderabad+history&source=bl&ots=93TrCzhaSa&sig=UvMCTjrDfbe-jNXy0M-Th0t-NaE&hl=en&ei=QK4aTsCNONDtObnB9PUI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDIQ6AEwBDgU#v=onepage&q=marfa%20hyderabad%20history&f=false. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 19 september 2011.
  28. Shanti Sadiq Ali (1995). The African dispersal in the Deccan: from medieval to modern times. oriental longman ltd. ISBN 81-250-0485-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=-3CPc22nMqIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb#v=onepage&q&f=false. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 22 september 2011.
  29. Paracha, Nadeem Farooq (29 March 2012). "The good, the bad & the Lyari". Dawn. http://dawn.com/2012/03/29/the-good-the-bad-the-lyari/. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 16 May 2012.
  30. ૩૦.૦ ૩૦.૧ Sheedi Mela begins with ritual aplomb[dead link], The News International, July 7, 2008
  31. [૨], BBC Urdu (online news service), 18 June 2010
  32. Pakistan's Sidi keep heritage alive, BBC News, 13 March 2002
  33. Manghopir urs a living tribute to Sheedi culture, Dawn July 16, 2007
  34. ‘Hoshu Sheedi Day’on March 23, Dawn (newspaper), March 21, 2007
  35. A poet in New York, Dawn (newspaper), December 09, 2007
  36. Afro-Asia in Pakistan Hasan Mujtaba, Samar Magazine, Issue 13: Winter/Spring, 2000
  37. YouTube - teer bija
  38. YouTube - Younis Jani - Papi Chulo
  39. Bhurgari, M. Hashim (24 October 2009). "Sheedi basha hum basha: black people dance away sorrows". Dawn. http://archives.dawn.com/archives/77851. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 16 October 2012.
  40. Mishra, Rakesh K. (2009). Chromosomes To Genome. I. K. International Pvt Ltd.. pp. 183. ISBN 9380026218. http://books.google.com/books?id=39Yh3iclF7IC&pg=PA183#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  41. Narang, Ankita; et al. (15). "Recent Admixture in an Indian Population of African Ancestry". American Journal of Human Genetics 89 (1): 111–120. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.06.004. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929711002576. પુનર્પ્રાપ્ત 18 December 2012.
  42. GOALKEEPERS | Goa Football Association

બાહ્ય કડીઓ[ફેરફાર કરો]