|— રાજધાની —|
|અક્ષાંશ-રેખાંશ||27°20′N 88°37′E / 27.33°N 88.62°E|
• 2,000/km2 (5,180/sq mi)
|સમય ક્ષેત્ર||ભારતીય માનક સમય (+૦૫:૩૦)|
|25 square kilometres (9.7 sq mi)|
• 1,437 metres (4,715 ft)
ગંગટોક ભારત દેશના ઉત્તરપૂર્વ ભાગમાં આવેલા સિક્કિમ રાજ્યમાં આવેલું મહત્વનું નગર છે. ગંગટોક સિક્કિમ રાજ્યની રાજધાને અને સૌથી મોટું શહેર છે.
ગંગટોક્લ હિમાપય પર્વતની શિવાલિક પર્વતમાળામાં સમુદ્ર સપાટી થી ૧૪૩૭મી કે ૪૭૦૦ફૂટ જેટલી ઊંચાઇ પર વસેલું છે. તેની આસપાસ ચારે ય બાજુ પર્વતમાળાઓ આવેલી છે, જેનાં શિખરો મોટેભાગે બરફથી છવાયેલ તેમ જ વાદળોથી આચ્છાદિત હોય છે. અહીં બરફવર્ષા પણ થાય છે. અહિયાં ફરવાની બહુ મઝા આવે છે. આ કારણે અહીં પ્રવાસીઓની અવરજવર મોટા પાયે થતી હોય છે. અહીં ચારે બાજુ લિલોતરી છવાયેલી છે. અહીં તિબેટીયન સંસ્કૃતિના અભ્યાસ માટેની સંસ્થા કાર્યરત છે. આ ઉપરાંત અહીં બૌદ્ધ ધર્મના અનેક મઠો જોવા મળે છે.
આ શહેરની વસતિ ૩૦,૦૦૦ની છે અહીં ઘણી નેપાળી જનજાતિ, લેપ્ચા, ભુટિયા આદિ જાતિ ના લોકો રહે છે અને અહીંનો કારભાર સિક્કિમ સરકારના વિવિધ વિભાગો દ્વારા ચલાવવમાં આવે છે.
The town, with a population of thirty thousand belonging to different ethnicities such as Nepalis, Lepchas and Bhutia, is administered by various departments of the Government of Sikkim. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya and enjoying a year-round mild temperate climate, Gangtok is at the centre of Sikkim’s tourism industry.
Gangtok rose to prominence as a popular Buddhist pilgrimage site after the construction of the Enchey Monastery in 1840. In 1894, the ruling Sikkimese Chogyal, Thutob Namgyal, transferred the capital to Gangtok. In the early 20th century, Gangtok became a major stopover on the trade route between Lhasa in Tibet and cities such as Kolkata (then Calcutta) in British India. After India won its independence from Britain in 1947, Sikkim chose to remain an independent monarchy, with Gangtok as its capital. In 1975, after the integration with the union of India, Gangtok was made India's twenty-second state capital.
The precise meaning of the name Gangtok is unclear, though the most popular meaning is "hill top". Today, Gangtok is a centre of Tibetan Buddhist culture and learning, with the presence of several monasteries, religious educational institutions, and centres for Tibetology.
સીક્કીમ ની જેમ ગંગટોક નો પ્રાચીન ઇતિહાસ પણ અજ્ઞાત છે. આનો સૌથી પ્રાચીન ઉલ્લેખ ૧૭૧૬માં મળે છે જેમાં એવું જણાય છે કે અહીં ગ્રામ્ય સ્તરીય ગંગટોક મઠ બંધાવાયો હતો.. ૧૮૪૦માં એંચી મઠના બ^ધકામ પહેલાં ગંગટોક એક ગામડું જ રહ્યું. આ મઠના બનતા તે એક તીર્થ ધામમાં રૂપાંતરણ પામ્યું. ૧૯મી સદીના અરાજકતાને પરિણામે અંગ્રેજો દ્વારા તાબે અક્રાયેલ ક્ષેત્ર બાદ કરતાં બછેલ ક્ષેત્રની ગંગટોક રાજધાની બની. ૧૯મી સદીના અંતમાં બ્રિટિશરો દ્વારા તિબેટિયનોનો પરાજય થતાં ગંગટોક તે સમયના બ્રિટિશ ઈંડિયા અને ચીન વચ્ચેના વેપારનું મુખ્ય મધ્યવર્તી કેંદ્ર બન્યું. . આ ક્ષેત્રના મોટા ભાગના રસ્તાઓ અને ટેલિગ્રાફ આ સમય દરમ્યાન બંધાવાયા.
In 1894, Thutob Namgyal, the Sikkimese monarch under British rule, shifted the capital from Tumlong to Gangtok, increasing the city's importance. A new grand palace along with other state buildings was built in the new capital. Following India's independence in 1947, Sikkim became a nation-state with Gangtok as its capital. Sikkim became a suzerain of India, with the condition that it would retain its independence, by the treaty signed between the Chogyal and the then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. This pact gave the Indians control of external affairs on behalf of Sikkimese. Trade between India and Tibet continued to flourish through the Nathula and Jelepla passes, offshoots of the ancient Silk Road near Gangtok. These border passes were sealed after the Sino-Indian War in 1962, which deprived Gangtok of its trading business. The Nathula pass was finally opened for limited trade in 2006, fuelling hopes of economic boom.
In 1975, after years of political uncertainty and struggle, including riots, the monarchy was abrogated and Sikkim became India's twenty-second state, with Gangtok as its capital after a referendum. Gangtok has witnessed annual landslides, resulting in loss of life and damage to property. The largest disaster occurred in June 1997, when 38 were killed and hundreds of buildings were destroyed.[મૃત કડી]
Gangtok is located at 27°20′N 88°37′E / 27.33°N 88.62°E. It is situated in the lower Himalayas at an altitude of 5,500 ft (1,676 m). In addition to being the state capital, it is the headquarters of the East Sikkim district. The town lies on one side of a hill, with "The Ridge", a promenade housing the governor's residence, at one end and the palace, situated at an altitude of about 6,000 ft (1,829 m), at the other. The city is flanked on east and west by two streams, namely Roro Chu and Ranikhola, respectively.[મૃત કડી] These two rivers divide the natural drainage into two parts, the eastern and western parts. Both the streams meet the Ranipul and flow south as the main Ranikhola before it joins the Teesta at Singtam.[મૃત કડી] Most of the roads are steep, with the buildings built on compacted ground alongside them.
Most of Sikkim, including Gangtok, is underlain by Precambrian rock which contains foliated phyllites and schists; slopes are therefore prone to frequent landslides.[મૃત કડી] Surface runoff of water by natural streams (jhora) and man-made drains has contributed to the risk of landslides.[મૃત કડી] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-IV (on a scale of I to V, in order of increasing seismic activity), near the convergent boundary of the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates and is subject to frequent earthquakes. The hills are nestled within higher peaks and the snow-clad Himalayan ranges tower over the town from the distance. Mount Kanchenjunga (8,598 m or 28,208 ft)—the world's third-highest peak—is visible to the west of the city. The existence of steep slopes, vulnerability to landslides, large forest cover and inadequate access to most areas has been a major impediment to the natural and balanced growth of the city.[મૃત કડી]
There are densely forested regions around Gangtok, consisting of temperate, deciduous forests of poplar, birch, oak, and elm, as well as evergreen, coniferous trees of the wet alpine zone.[મૃત કડી] Orchids are common, and rare varieties of orchids are featured in flower shows in the city. Bamboos are also abundant. In the lower reaches of the town, the vegetation gradually changes from alpine to temperate deciduous and subtropical.[મૃત કડી] Flowers such as sunflower, marigold, poinsettia, and others bloom, especially in November and December.
|હવામાન માહિતી Gangtok|
|સરેરાશ મહત્તમ °C (°F)||13
|સરેરાશ ન્યૂનતમ °C (°F)||4
|સરેરાશ precipitation મીમી (ઈંચ)||31.9
Gangtok features a monsoon-influenced subtropical highland climate. Because of its elevation and sheltered environment, Gangtok enjoys a mild, temperate climate all year round. Like most Himalayan towns, Gangtok has five seasons: summer, monsoons, autumn, winter and spring. Temperatures range from an average maximum of 22 °C (72 °F) in summer to an average minimum of 4 °C (39 °F) in winter. Summers (lasting from late April to June) are mild, with maximum temperatures rarely crossing 25 °C (77 °F). The monsoon season from June to September is characterised by intense torrential rains often causing landslides that block Gangtok's land access to the rest of the country. Rainfall starts to rise from pre-monsoon in May, and peaks during the monsoon, with July recording the highest monthly average of 649.6 mm (25.6 in). In winter temperature averages between 4 °C (39 °F) and 7 °C (45 °F). Snowfall is rare, and in recent times Gangtok has received snow only in 1990, 2004, 2005 and January 2011.[મૃત કડી] Temperatures below freezing are also rare.[મૃત કડી] During this season the weather can be unstable, and change abruptly from bright sunshine and clear skies to heavy rain within a couple of hours. During spring and autumn the weather is generally sunny and mild. Owing to its elevation, Gangtok is often enveloped in fog during the monsoon and winter months.
The hospitality industry is the largest industry in Gangtok as the city is the main base for Sikkim tourism.[મૃત કડી] Summer and spring seasons are the most popular tourist seasons. Many of Gangtok's residents are employed directly and indirectly in the tourism industry, with many residents owning and working in hotels and restaurants.
Ecotourism has emerged as an important economic activity in the region which includes trekking, mountaineering, river rafting and other nature oriented activities.[મૃત કડી] An estimated 351,000 tourists visited Sikkim in 2007, generating revenue of about Rs 50 crores (Rs 500 millions).
The Nathula Pass, located about 50 km (31 mi) from Gangtok, used to be the primary route of the wool, fur and spice trade with Tibet and spurred economic growth for Gangtok till the mid-20th century. In 1962, after the border was closed during the Sino-Indian War, Gangtok fell into recession. The pass was reopened in 2006 and trade through the pass is expected to boost the economy of Gangtok.[મૃત કડી] The Sikkim government is keen to open a Lhasa–Gangtok bus service via Nathula pass. Sikkim's mountainous terrain results in the lack of train or air links, limiting the area's potential for rapid industrial development.[મૃત કડી] The government is the largest employer in the city,[મૃત કડી] both directly and as contractors.
Gangtok's economy does not have a large manufacturing base, but has a thriving Cottage industry in watch-making, country-made alcohol and handicrafts.[મૃત કડી] Among the handicrafts are the handmade paper industry made from various vegetable fibres or cotton rags. The main market in Gangtok provides many of the state's rural residents a place to offer their produce during the harvest seasons. The majority of the private business community is made up of Marwaris and Biharis. As part of Sikkim, Gangtok enjoys the status of being an income-tax free region as per the state's 1948 Income tax law. As Sikkim is a frontier state, the Indian army maintains a large presence in the vicinity of Gangtok. This leads to a population of semi-permanent residents who bring money into the local economy. The Sikkim government started India's first online lottery Playwin to boost government income, but this was later closed by a ruling from the Sikkim High Court. Ram Chandra Pradeep Kumar Jewellers located on Lall Market Road is a well renowned jewelery shop and by far the leading dealer of gold jewelery all over in Gangtok, including parts of South Sikkim. The firm was set up in the year 1962 and has been faring excellently in the jewelry industry in Gangtok.
Civic administration[ફેરફાર કરો]
Gangtok is not administered by a municipality but directly by the various departments of Government of Sikkim, particularly the Urban Development and Housing Department (UDHD) and Public Health Engineering Department (PHED).[મૃત કડી] These departments look after the civic functions such as garbage disposal, water supply, tax collection, license allotments, and civic infrastructure. An administrator appointed by the state government heads the UDHD. The Sikkim Municipal Act, 2007 has approved the formation of Gangtok Municipal Corporation to be made up of 12 wards and which shall take over the administration from the UDHD.[મૃત કડી]
As the headquarters of East Sikkim district, Gangtok houses the offices of the district collector, an administrator appointed by the Union Government of India. Gangtok is also the seat of the Sikkim High Court, which is India's smallest High Court in terms of area and population of jurisdiction. Gangtok does not have its own police commissionerate like other major cities in India. Instead, it comes under the jurisdiction of the state police, which is headed by a Director General of Police, although an Inspector General of Police oversees the town. Rongyek jail in Gangtok is Sikkim's only central jail.
Gangtok is within the Sikkim Lok Sabha constituency that elects a member to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) of the Indian Parliament. The city elects one member in the Sikkim state legislative assembly, the Vidhan Sabha. The Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) won both the parliamentary election in 2004 and the state assembly seat in the 2004 state assembly polls.
Utility services[ફેરફાર કરો]
Electricity is supplied by the power department of the Government of Sikkim. Gangtok has a nearly uninterrupted electricity supply due to Sikkim's numerous hydroelectric power stations. The rural roads around Gangtok are maintained by the Border Roads Organisation, a division of the Indian army. Several roads in Gangtok are reported to be in a poor condition,[મૃત કડી] whereas building construction activities continue almost unrestrained in this city lacking proper land infrastructure.[મૃત કડી] Most households are supplied by the central water system maintained and operated by the PHED.[મૃત કડી] The main source of PHED water supply is the Rateychu River, located about 16 km (9.9 mi) from the city, at an altitude of 2,621 m (8,599 ft). Its water treatment plant is located at Selep. The river Rateychu is snow-fed and has perennial streams. Since there is no habitation in the catchment area except for a small army settlement, there is little environmental degradation and the water is of very good quality.[મૃત કડી] 40 seasonal local springs are used by the Rural Management and Development Department of Sikkim Government to supply water to outlying rural areas.
Around 40% of the population has access to sewers.[મૃત કડી] However, only the toilet waste is connected to the sewer while sullage is discharged into the drains.[મૃત કડી] Without a proper sanitation system, the practice of disposing sewage through septic tanks and directly discharging into Jhoras and open drains is prevalent.[મૃત કડી] The entire city drains into the two rivers, Ranikhola and Roro Chu, through numerous small streams and Jhoras. Ranikhola and Roro Chu rivers confluence with River Teesta, the major source of drinking water to the population downstream. The densely populated urban area of Gangtok does not have a combined drainage system to drain out the storm water and waste water from the buildings.[મૃત કડી] The estimated solid waste generated in Gangtok city is approximately 45 tonnes.[મૃત કડી] Only around 40% of this is collected by UDHD, while the remainder is indiscriminately thrown into Jhora, streets and valleys.[મૃત કડી] The collected waste is disposed in a dump located about 20 km (12 mi) from the city. There is no waste collection from inaccessible areas where vehicles cannot reach, nor does any system of collection of waste exist in the adjoining rural areas. The city is under a statewide ban on the use of polythene bags.[મૃત કડી]
Taxis are the most widely available public transport within Gangtok.[મૃત કડી] Most of the residents stay within a few kilometres of the town centre[મૃત કડી] and many have their own vehicles such as two-wheelers and cars.[મૃત કડી] The share of personal vehicles and taxis combined is 98% of Gangtok's total vehicles, a high percentage when compared to other Indian cities.[મૃત કડી] City buses comprise less than one percent of vehicles.[મૃત કડી] Those travelling longer distances generally make use of share-jeeps, a kind of public taxis. Four wheel drives are used to easily navigate the steep slopes of the roads. The 1 km (0.6 mi) long cable car with three stops connects lower Gangtok suburbs with Sikkim Legislative assembly in central Gangtok and the upper suburbs.
Gangtok is connected to the rest of India by an all-weather metalled highway, National Highway 31A, which links Gangtok to Siliguri, located 114 km (71 mi) away in the neighbouring state of West Bengal. The highway also provides a link to the neighbouring hill station towns of Darjeeling and Kalimpong, which are the nearest urban areas. Regular jeep, van, and bus services link these towns to Gangtok. Gangtok is a linear city that has developed along the arterial roads, especially National Highway 31A.[મૃત કડી] Most of the road length in Gangtok, is of two lane undivided carriageway with footpath on one side of the road and drain on the other. The steep gradient of the different road stretches coupled with a spiral road configuration constrain the smooth flow of vehicular as well as pedestrian traffic.[મૃત કડી] The nearest railhead connected to the rest of India is the station of New Jalpaiguri, a suburb of Siliguri, situated 124 km (77 mi) away from Gangtok. The closest airport is Bagdogra Airport, 16 km (10 mi) from Siliguri. Although Gangtok does not have an airport, it is linked to Bagdogra airport via a daily helicopter service.
|Population 1951-2001.[મૃત કડી]|
negative growth attributed
to reduction of notified town limits
According to the 2001 census of India, the population of Gangtok "Notified Town Area" (a census unit) was 29,354. Males constituted 54% of the population and females 46%. The Gangtok subdivision of the East Sikkim district had a population of 179,376,[મૃત કડી] of which 43,711 reside in urban areas of Gangtok and Tadong.[મૃત કડી] Gangtok has an average literacy rate of 69.7%,[મૃત કડી] higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 77.9%, and female literacy is 61.5%.[મૃત કડી] In Gangtok, about 8% of the population is under 6 years of age. About 8% of Gangtok’s population live in the nine notified slums and squatter settlements, all on Government land. More people live in areas that depict slum-like characteristics but have not been notified as slums yet because they have developed on private land.[મૃત કડી] Of the total urban population of Sikkim, Gangtok Notified Town Area has a share of 55.5%. Including Gangtok, East District has a share of 88% of the total urban population. The quality of life, the pace of development and availability of basic infrastructure and employment prospects has been the major cause for rapid migration to the city. With this migration, the urban services are under pressure, intensified by the lack of availability of suitable land for infrastructure development.[મૃત કડી]
Ethnic Nepalis, who settled in the region during British rule,[મૃત કડી] comprise the majority of Gangtok's residents. Lepchas, native to the land, and Bhutias also constitute a sizeable portion of the populace.[મૃત કડી] Additionally, a large number of Tibetans have immigrated to the town. Immigrant resident communities not native to the region include the Marwaris,[મૃત કડી] who own most of the shops; the Biharis, who are employed in mostly blue collar jobs and the Bengalis.
Hinduism and Buddhism are the most popular religions in Gangtok.[મૃત કડી] Gangtok also has a sizeable Christian population and a small Muslim minority.[મૃત કડી] The North East Presbyterian Church, Roman Catholic Church and Anjuman Mosque in Gangtok are places of worship for the religious minorities.[મૃત કડી] The town has remained secular, having never witnessed any sort of inter-religious strife in its history.[મૃત કડી] Nepali is the most widely spoken language in Sikkim as well as Gangtok. English and Hindi being the official language of Sikkim and India respectively, are also widely spoken and understood in most of Sikkim, particularly in Gangtok. Other languages spoken in Gangtok include Bhutia (Sikkimese), Tibetan and Lepcha.
Apart from the major religious festivals of Diwali, Christmas, Dussera, Holi etc., the diverse ethnic populace of the town celebrates several local festivals. The Lepchas and Bhutias celebrate new year in January, while Tibetans celebrate the new year (Losar) with "Devil Dance" in January–February. The Maghe sankranti, Ram Navami, Chotrul Duchen, Buddha Jayanti, the birthday of the Dalai Lama, Loosong, Bhumchu, Saga Dawa, Lhabab Duechen and Drupka Teshi are some other festivals, some distinct to local culture and others shared with the rest of India, Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet.[મૃત કડી][મૃત કડી]
A popular food in Gangtok is the momo, a steamed dumpling containing pork, beef and vegetables cooked in a doughy wrapping and served with watery soup. Wai-Wai is a packaged snack consisting of noodles which are eaten either dry or in soup form. A form of noodle called thukpa, served in soup form is also popular in Gangtok. Other noodle-based foods such as the chowmein, thanthuk, fakthu, gyathuk and wonton are available. Other traditional Sikkimese cuisine include shah-phaley (Sikkimese patties with spiced minced meat in a crisp samosa-like case) and Gack-ko soup. Restaurants offer a wide variety of traditional Indian, continental and Chinese cuisines to cater to the tourists. Churpee, a kind of hard cheese made from cow's or yak's milk is sometimes chewed. Chhang is a local frothy millet beer traditionally served in bamboo tankards and drunk through bamboo or cane straws. Alcohol is cheap due to low excise duty in Sikkim. Beer, whiskey, rum and brandy are frequently consumed by both locals and non-locals.
Residents of Sikkim are music lovers and it is common to hear Western rock music being played in homes and restaurants. Hindi pop songs are also common. Indigenous Nepali rock, music suffused with a western rock beat and Nepali lyrics, is particularly popular. Football (soccer), cricket and archery are the most popular sports in Gangtok.[મૃત કડી] The Paljor Stadium, which hosts football matches, is the sole sporting ground in the city. Thangka—a notable handicraft—is an elaborately hand painted religious scroll in brilliant colours drawn on fabric hung in a monastery or a family altar and occasionally carried by monks in ceremonial processions.[મૃત કડી] Chhaams are vividly costumed monastic dances performed on ceremonial and festive occasions, especially in the monasteries during the Tibetan new year.[મૃત કડી]
City institutions[ફેરફાર કરો]
A centre of Buddhist learning and culture, Gangtok's most notable Buddhist institutions are the Enchey monastery, the Do-drul Chorten stupa complex and the Rumtek Monastery. The Enchey monastery is the city's oldest monastery and is the seat of the Nyingma order.[મૃત કડી] The two-hundred year old baroque monastery houses images of gods, goddesses, and other religious artifacts.[મૃત કડી] In the month of January, the Chaam, or masked dance, is performed with great fanfare. The Dro-dul Chorten is a stupa which was constructed in 1945 by Trulshi Rimpoché, head of the Nyingma order of Tibetan Buddhism.[મૃત કડી] Inside this stupa are complete set of relics, holy books, and mantras. Surrounding the edifice are 108 Mani Lhakor, or prayer wheels.[મૃત કડી] The complex also houses a religious school.
The Rumtek Monastery on the outskirts of the town is one of Buddhism's most sacred monasteries. The monastery is the seat of the Kagyu order, one of the major Tibetan sects, and houses some of the world's most sacred and rare Tibetan Buddhist scriptures and religious objects in its reliquary. Constructed in the 1960s, the building is modeled after a similar monastery in Lhasa, Tibet. Rumtek was the focus of international media attention in 2000 after the seventeenth Karmapa, one of the four holiest lamas, fled Lhasa and sought refuge in the monastery.
The Namgyal Institute of Tibetology, better known as the Tibetology Museum, houses a huge collection of masks, Buddhist scriptures, statues, and tapestries. It has over two hundred Buddhist icons, and is a centre of study of Buddhist philosophy. The Ganesh Tok and the Hanuman Tok, dedicated to the Hindu gods Ganpati and Hanuman and housing important Hindu temples, are located in the upper reaches of the town.
The Himalayan Zoological Park exhibits the fauna of the Himalayas in their natural habitats. The zoo features the Himalayan Black Bear, the barking deer, the snow leopard, the leopard cat, Tibetan wolf, Masked Palm Civet, red pandas and the spotted deer amongst the others. Jawaharlal Nehru Botanical Gardens, near Rumtek, houses many species of orchid and as many as fifty different species of tree, including many oaks.
Gangtok's schools are either run by the state government or by private and religious organizations. Schools mainly use English and Nepali as their medium of instruction. The schools are either affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, Central Board of Secondary Education or the National Institute of Open Schooling. Notable schools include the Tashi Namgyal Academy,[મૃત કડી] Paljor Namgyal Girls School and Kendriya Vidyalaya.[મૃત કડી] Colleges conferring graduate degrees include Sikkim Government College, Sikkim Government Law College and Damber Singh College.[મૃત કડી] Gangtok does not have a university within the city limits. However, 8 km (5.0 mi) from here is the headquarters of the Sikkim Manipal University, which houses Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences and Manipal Institute of Technology.[મૃત કડી] There are other institutions offering diplomas in Buddhist literature, catering and other non-mainstream fields.[મૃત કડી] District Institute of Education and Training and State Institute of Education conduct teacher training programs.[મૃત કડી] Students usually go to large cities in the vicinity such as Siliguri or Kolkata in pursuit of higher education.
More than 50 newspapers are published in Sikkim,[મૃત કડી] most of them in Gangtok.[મૃત કડી] Multiple local Nepali and English newspapers are published,[મૃત કડી] whereas regional and national Hindi and English newspapers, printed elsewhere in India, are also circulated. The English newspapers include The Statesman and The Telegraph, which are printed in Siliguri; The Hindu and The Times of India, which are printed in Kolkata. Sikkim Herald, the newsweekly of the Government of Sikkim is published in thirteen languages of the state.[મૃત કડી]
Gangtok has two cinema halls featuring Nepali, Hindi and English language films.[મૃત કડી] The town also has a public library.[મૃત કડી] There are Internet cafés in and around the city, but broadband connectivity is limited. Satellite dishes exist in most homes in the region and the channels available throughout India are also available here, along with a few Nepali language channels. The main service providers are Sikkim Cable, Nayuma, Dish TV and Doordarshan. The national All India Radio along with two fm stations Nine fm and Radio Misty are the three radio stations in the city. BSNL, Reliance and Airtel have the three largest cellular networks in the town. There is a Doordarshan TV tower in Gangtok.
- ↑ "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Gangtok, India". Global Gazetteer Version 2.1. Falling Rain Genomics. મેળવેલ 2008-05-22.
- ↑ ૨.૦ ૨.૧ Bannerjee, Parag (14 October 2007). "Next weekend you can be at ... Gangtok". The Telegraph. મૂળ માંથી 2009-02-21 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ Shangderpa, Pema Leyda (6 October 2003). "Kids to learn hill state history". The Telegraph. મૂળ માંથી 2012-10-23 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-02.
- ↑ Bernier, Ronald M (1997). Himalayan Architecture. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ
Press. પૃષ્ઠ 40–42. ISBN 0-8386-3602-0. line feed character in
|publisher=at position 25 (મદદ)
- ↑ ૫.૦ ૫.૧ Lepcha, N.S. "Gangtok Capital Attraction". Himalayan Travel Trade Journal. MD Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. મૂળ માંથી 2007-08-16 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-03.
- ↑ "History of Skkim". sikkim.nic.in. National Informatics Center, Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2006-10-30 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-20.Web archive link
- ↑ ૭.૦ ૭.૧ Jha, Prashant (2006). "Special report: A break in the ridgeline". Himal South Asia. South Asia Trust. મૂળ માંથી 2006-10-30 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-20. Unknown parameter
- ↑ "Historic India-China link opens". BBC News. 2006-07-06. મેળવેલ 2006-07-06.
- ↑ ૯.૦૦ ૯.૦૧ ૯.૦૨ ૯.૦૩ ૯.૦૪ ૯.૦૫ ૯.૦૬ ૯.૦૭ ૯.૦૮ ૯.૦૯ ૯.૧૦ ૯.૧૧ ૯.૧૨ ૯.૧૩ ૯.૧૪ ૯.૧૫ ૯.૧૬ ૯.૧૭ ૯.૧૮ ૯.૧૯ ૯.૨૦ ૯.૨૧ ૯.૨૨ ૯.૨૩ ૯.૨૪ ૯.૨૫ ૯.૨૬ [મૃત કડી] "Section 4: City Assessment" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ "Gangtok, India page". Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. મેળવેલ 2008-05-02.
- ↑ "Geographical Location". Meteorological Center, Gangtok. India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-03.
- ↑ Negi, S.S (1998). Discovering the Himalaya. Indus Publishing. પૃષ્ઠ 563. ISBN 81-7387-079-9.
- ↑ "Gangtok City". mapsofindia.com. Compare Infobase Limited. મેળવેલ 2008-05-03.
- ↑ ૧૪.૦ ૧૪.૧ ૧૪.૨ ૧૪.૩ ૧૪.૪ ૧૪.૫ ૧૪.૬ ૧૪.૭ "Section 2: Introduction To The State And Its Capital" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. મૂળ (PDF) માંથી 2008-05-28 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.
- ↑ ૧૫.૦ ૧૫.૧ ૧૫.૨ "Meteorological data in respect of Gangtok and Tadong station". Meteorological Center, Gangtok. India Meteorological Department, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.
- ↑ ૧૬.૦૦ ૧૬.૦૧ ૧૬.૦૨ ૧૬.૦૩ ૧૬.૦૪ ૧૬.૦૫ ૧૬.૦૬ ૧૬.૦૭ ૧૬.૦૮ ૧૬.૦૯ ૧૬.૧૦ ૧૬.૧૧ [મૃત કડી]"Section 3: Social, Demographic & Economic Profile" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ ૧૭.૦ ૧૭.૧ Press Trust of India (24 April 2008). "Tourist inflow in Sikkim up 10% in 2007". Business Standard. Business Standard Ltd. મૂળ સંગ્રહિત માંથી 2008-05-11 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.
- ↑ Sinha, A.C (2005). "Nathula: Trading in uncertainty". Himal South Asia. South Asia Trust. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07. Unknown parameter
|archive-url=is malformed: timestamp (મદદ)
- ↑ Atreya, Satikah (4 March 2008). "Decision to exempt incomes of Sikkim subjects hailed". The Hindu Business Line. The Hindu. મેળવેલ 2008-03-04.
- ↑ Mohan, C. Raja (29 June 2003). "Building a gateway to Tibet". The Hindu. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-04 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ Shangderpa, Pema Leyda (12 July 2003). "Ducking court blow, Gangtok retailers play to win". The Telegraph. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-10 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2003-07-12.
- ↑ "Introduction". Urban Development and Housing Department. Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2013-09-14 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.
- ↑ [મૃત કડી] "Section 8: City Management and Institutional Strengthening" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ Mitta, Manoj (27 December 2006). "Gangtok turns 'kaala paani' for high court judges". The Times of India. Times Internet Limited. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.
- ↑ "List of IPS officers and place of posting". Department of Information Technology, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2012-05-09 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-02.
- ↑ "Crimes Under the Indian Penal Code Snapshot (1997)". Internal Security. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. મૂળ માંથી 2007-09-27 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-02.
- ↑ "Maps". Prison Statistics India:2005. National Crime Records Bureau, Government of India. 2007. મૂળ માંથી 2012-03-30 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07. Unknown parameter
- ↑ "Election Result of Sikkim Lok Sabha Constituency". Biographical Sketch, Member of Parliament, 12th Lok Sabha. Indian Parliament, National Informatics Centre. મૂળ માંથી 2007-08-09 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ "Sikkim Assembly Elections 2004 Results". Assembly Elections 2004, Indian-Elections. Election Commission of India. મૂળ માંથી 2004-06-10 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]"City Assessment: Physical Infrastructure" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. પૃષ્ઠ 4–25. મેળવેલ 2008-05-19.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]"City Assessment: Physical Infrastructure" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. પૃષ્ઠ 4–27. મેળવેલ 2008-05-19.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ "Gangtok ready for ropeway ride". The Telegraph. 26 November 2003. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-10 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-07-05.
- ↑ "Getting There". Sikkim. Ministry of Tourism, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-08.
- ↑ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. મૂળ માંથી 2004-06-16 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-11-01. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]"Section 5: Urban Poor and Housing Situation" (PDF). City Development Plan-Gangtok City. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ ૩૬.૦ ૩૬.૧ "People". Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-22 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.
- ↑ ૩૭.૦ ૩૭.૧ ૩૭.૨ ૩૭.૩ ૩૭.૪ ૩૭.૫ ૩૭.૬ "Tourism". Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-10 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]"Demographics". HIV and Sikkim. HIV ATLAS Inc. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ Dorjee, C.K (5 December 2003). "The Ethnic People of Sikkim". Features. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ "People of Sikkim". Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-22 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-30.
- ↑ "Introduction to Sikkim". Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-10 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-30.
- ↑ "Constitution of India as of 29 July 2008" (PDF). The Constitution Of India. Ministry of Law & Justice. મેળવેલ 13 April 2011.
- ↑ ૪૩.૦ ૪૩.૧ ૪૩.૨ "Festivals of Sikkim". Culture. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-08 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.
- ↑ ૪૪.૦ ૪૪.૧ Shangderpa, Pema Leyda (3 September 2002). "Sleepy capital comes alive to beats of GenX". The Telegraph. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-10 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07.
- ↑ ૪૫.૦ ૪૫.૧ Gantzer, Hugh (11 June 2006). "The seat of esoteric knowledge". Deccan Herald. The Printers (Mysore) Private Ltd. મેળવેલ 2008-05-07. Unknown parameter
|archive-url=is malformed: timestamp (મદદ)
- ↑ "Rumtek row: Member sees bid to secede from India". The Indian Express. 22 October 1998. મૂળ માંથી 2020-05-02 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ Harding, Luke (2001-04-30). "Tibetan leader at crossroads". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ Cheung, Susanna Chui-Yung (2000-04-05). "The flight of the Karmapa and the security of South Asia". The Taipei Times. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ "Museum". Namgyal Institute of Tibetology. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
|archive-url=is malformed: timestamp (મદદ)
- ↑ "Slides snap road links in hill state". The Telegraph. 17 July 2007. મૂળ માંથી 2007-10-09 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ "Army lands in row over Baba". The Telegraph. 2007-01-04. મૂળ માંથી 2007-02-25 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-21.
- ↑ "Himalayan Zoological Park". Forests, Environment and Forests Management Department, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2009-01-29 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-22.
- ↑ "Jawaharlal Nehru Botanical Garden". BharatOnline.com. મેળવેલ 2008-05-22.
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]Goparma, Sonam (29 April 2008). "Governor attends TNA's 33rd Annual Day, musical show by Army School" (PDF). Sikkim Herald. Gangtok, Sikkim: Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. પૃષ્ઠ 4. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]Gautam, Pramod (29 April 2008). "Kendriya Vidyalaya celebrates its 33rd Annual day" (PDF). Sikkim Herald. Gangtok, Sikkim: Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. પૃષ્ઠ 3. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ [મૃત કડી]"District Institute of Education and Training, Gangtok". National Informatics Centre (NIC), Sikkim State Centre. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.
- ↑ "Education Statistics". Sikkim: A Statistical Profile. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-13 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.
- ↑ ૫૮.૦ ૫૮.૧ "About Us". Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. મૂળ માંથી 2008-05-16 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.
- ↑ ૫૯.૦ ૫૯.૧ [મૃત કડી]"Registered Newspapers in Sikkim". Newspapers and Journalists. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.[મૃત કડી]
- ↑ Shangderpa, Pema Leyda (28 January 2003). "Bhandari adds political colour to cable war". The Telegraph. મૂળ માંથી 2011-05-26 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-19.
- ↑ "Facts and Figures about Sikkim". Government of Sikkim. મૂળ સંગ્રહિત માંથી 2008-05-01 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2008-05-09.