ગુજરાતી સિનેમા

વિકિપીડિયામાંથી
આના પર જાવ: ભ્રમણ, શોધો
નરસિંહ મહેતા (૧૯૩૨) એ પૂર્ણકક્ષાનું પ્રથમ ગુજરાતી ચલચિત્ર હતું.

ગુજરાતી સિનેમા, સામાન્ય રીતે ઢોલીવૂડ કે ગોલીવૂડ તરીકે ઓળખાવાય છે,[૧] માં પ્રારંભકાળથી અત્યાર સુધીમાં ૧૦૦૦ કરતાં વધુ ચલચિત્રો નિર્માણ પામ્યા છે.[૨] ભારતીય સિનેમા ઉદ્યોગનો પ્રાદેશિક અને સ્થાનિક ભાષાના મોટા સિનેમા ઉદ્યોગમાંનો એક એવો ગુજરાતી ભાષા સાથે જોડાયેલો ઉદ્યોગ છે. મુંગી ફિલ્મોનાં જમાનામાં, સિનેઉદ્યોગમાં વ્યક્તિગત રીતે ઘણાં ગુજરાતીઓ હતા. ગુજરાતી સિનેમાનાં છેડા ભુતકાળમાં છેક ૧૯૩૨ સુધી લંબાય છે, જ્યારે ૯ એપ્રિલ ૧૯૩૨ના રોજ પ્રથમ ગુજરાતી ચલચિત્ર (બોલપટ) નરસિંહ મહેતા રજૂ થયું હતું.[૩][૪][૫][૬] ૧૯૬૦, ૭૦ અને ૮૦ના દશકમાં ફાલ્યા ફૂલ્યાં પછી આ ઉદ્યોગની પડતી શરૂ થઈ. ૨૦૦૦માં તો નવા બનેલાં ચલચિત્રોનો આંક ૨૦ કરતાં પણ ઓછો થઈ ગયો હતો. ત્યાર પછી ગ્રામ્ય વિસ્તારોની માંગ અને પછીથી નવી નવી તકનિકો તથા ચલચિત્રોમાં શહેરી વિષયોના સમાવેશને કારણે ૨૦૧૦માં વળી આ ઉદ્યોગમાં આંશિકરૂપે તેજી આવી. વળી ૨૦૦૫માં તો સરકારે ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મોને ૧૦૦% કરમુક્ત જાહેર કરી હતી,[૭][૮] અને ૨૦૧૬માં પ્રોત્સાહનોની નીતિ પણ અમલમાં આવી.[૯]

વ્યુત્પતિ[ફેરફાર કરો]

ગુજરાતી સિને ઉદ્યોગનું હુલામણું નામ ઢોલીવૂડ, મુંબઈ (ત્યારે બોમ્બે કહેવાતું) સ્થિત સિનેમા ઉદ્યોગના હુલામણા નામ, બોલીવૂડ થી પ્રેરીત છે. ગુજરાતી ચલચિત્રોમાં વિપુલ પ્રમાણમાં ઢોલનો ઉપયોગ થતો હોવાને કારણે આ નામ પડી ગયું છે. તદ્‌ઉપરાંત, ગુજરાત અને બોલીવૂડ એ બંન્ને શબ્દોનાં સંયોજન દ્વારા પડેલું અન્ય હુલામણું નામ છે, ગોલીવૂડ.[૧૦][૧૧]

ઇતિહાસ[ફેરફાર કરો]

મુંગી ફિલ્મોનો યુગ (૧૯૧૩–૧૯૩૧)[ફેરફાર કરો]

અંગ્રેજ સત્તા દ્વારા પ્રતિબંધિત કરાયેલું પ્રથમ ચલચિત્ર ભક્ત વિદુર (૧૯૨૧).
અનોખી ગુજરાતી શૈલીમાં લખાયેલી સિનેમાનાં શૉની સમયસારણી

બોલપટનાં આગમન પહેલાંથી જ ઘણી બધી મુંગી ફિલ્મો ગુજરાતી લોકો અને સંસ્કૃતિ સાથે સંકળાયેલી રહી હતી, ઘણાં દિગ્દર્શકો, નિર્માતાઓ અને કલાકારો ગુજરાતી અને પારસીઓ હતા. ૧૯૧૩ થી ૧૯૩૧ દરમિયાન બોમ્બે (હવે મુંબઈ)માં ગુજરાતીઓની માલીકીનાં ૨૦ જેટલાં સિનેમા નિર્માણગૃહો કે ફિલ્મ કંપનીઓ હતાં; અને ઓછામાં ઓછા ૪૪ મોખરાનાં ગુજરાતી દિગ્દર્શકો હતા.[૧૦]

મુંગી ફિલ્મ બિલ્વમંગલ (ભક્ત સૂરદાસ, ૧૯૧૯, તરીકે પણ ઓળખાયેલી) ગુજરાતી પારસી રુસ્તમજી ધોતીવાલાએ દિગ્દર્શિત કરી હતી, અને તેની વાર્તા ગુજરાતી લેખક ચાંપશી ઉદેશીએ લખી હતી. આ પૂર્ણ લંબાઈની (૧૩૨ મિનિટ્સ, ૧૨,૦૦૦ ફુટ (૩,૭૦૦ મી)) ફિલ્મ કલકત્તા (હવે કોલકાતા, પશ્ચિમ બંગાળ)ની એલ્ફિનસ્ટોન બાયોસ્કોપ કંપનીએ નિર્માણ કરી હતી, તે બંગાળી ફિલ્મ મનાય હતી. ૧૯૧૯માં, પ્રખ્યાત ગુજરાતી સામયીક વિસમી સદીના સંપાદક, હાજીમહંમદ અલ્લારખાની મદદથી સુચેત સિંઘે ’ઓરિએન્ટલ ફિલ્મ મેન્યુફેક્ચરીંગ કંપની ઓફ બોમ્બે’ની સ્થાપના કરી હતી. મુંગી ફિલ્મ નરસિંહ મહેતા (૧૯૨૦) આ ઓરિએન્ટ કંપનીએ બનાવેલી, જે ફિલ્મમાં પડદા પર જ્યારે સંબંધિત દ્રશ્યો દર્શાવાય ત્યારે ગીત "વૈષ્ણવજન તો.." સિનેમા ખંડમાં ઉપસ્થિત સંગીતકારો અને દર્શકો દ્વારા ગાવામાં આવતું હતું.[૧૦]


Dwarkadas Sampat bought a projector and held shows in Rajkot. He established Patankar Friends & Company with S. N. Patankar. Raja Sriyal was the company's first film, but it was not released due to a defective print. Kach-Devyani (1920), directed by Patankar, featured garba dancing, marking the first appearnce of Gujarati culture in films. Sampat later founded the Kohinoor Film Company. Kohinoor's first film, Sati Parvati (1920), which also depicted Gujarati culture, was directed by Vishnupant Divekar and featured Prabha, an actress from Rajkot, in the lead role of Parvati. Bhakta Vidur (1921), directed by Kanjibhai Rathod, was implicitly political: The film featured Sampat in the lead role of Vidur, who donned a Gandhi cap, an allusion to the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. The film had a Gujarati song, "Rudo Maro Rentiyo, Rentiyama Nikle Taar, Taare Taare Thay Bharatno Uddhar", referred to the spinning wheel (rentio) on the flag of Indian National Congress at that time. It was the first film banned in India by British authorities. It was re-released in 1922 under the title Dharm Vijay. Pavagadhnu Patan (The Fall of Pavagadh, 1928) was directed by Nagendra Majumdar and produced by Indulal Yagnik. Yagnik was an independence activist who later headed the Mahagujarat Movement demanding a separate Gujarat state. Yagnik produced ten films under various banners.[૧૦]

Kohinoor produced many films in the silent film era, including social films in a period dominated by mythological films. Katorabhar Khoon (1920) was its first social film. Manorama (1924) was directed by Homi Master and was based on Hridaya Triputi, an autobiographical poem by the Gujarati poet Kalapi. Gul-E-Bakavali (1924), written by Mohanlal G. Dave and directed by Rathod, ran successfully for fourteen weeks.[૧૨] Manilal Joshi, an experimental Gujarati director, directed Abhimanyu (1922), which was produced by the Star Film Company, and later Prithivi Vallabh based on the novel of the same name by Gujarati author K. M. Munshi.[૧૦]

The Krishna Film Company, established in 1924 and owned by Maneklal Patel, produced forty-four films between 1925 and 1931. The Sharda Film Company was established in 1925, financed by Mayashankar Bhatt and run by Bhogilal Dave and Nanubhai Desai. Bhatt also financed Dadasaheb Phalke's Hindustan Cinema Film Company.[૧૦]

Early talkies (1932–1947)[ફેરફાર કરો]

Before the 1931 release of the first full-length Indian sound film, Alam Ara, a short Gujarati sound film, Chav Chavno Murabbo, was released on 4 February 1931 in Bombay. It included the song Mane Mankad Karde ("A Bug Bites Me"), the first sound in any Indian film. The film was produced by Maneklal Patel, with lyrics and dialogue by Natwar Shyam. The title, literally "Chew Chew's Marmalade", refers to having to chew marmalade to swallow it and probably has no specific connection to the plot.[૧૦]

Before the first full-length Gujarati sound film, Narsinh Mehta (1932), two short Gujarati sound films were released with Hindi talkies. The two-reel short Krishna–Sudama, produced by the Imperial Film Company, was released with Hindi talkie Nek Abala. Another two-reel short, Mumbai ni Shethani was premiered along with Madan's Shirin Farhad on 9 January 1932 at Wellington Cinema, Bombay. It was produced by Theatres of Calcutta and was based on the story written by Champshi Udeshi. The film starred Mohan, Miss Sharifa and Surajram and included the Gujarati song Fashion ni Fishiari, Juo, Mumbai ni Shethani.[૧૦]

The release of the first full-length Gujarati talkie, Narsinh Mehta on 9 April 1932 marks the true beginning of Gujarati cinema. It was directed by Nanubhai Vakil, produced by Sagar Movietone, and starred Mohanlala, Marutirao, Master Manhar, and Miss Mehtab. It was of the 'saint' genre and was on the life of the saint Narsinh Mehta.[૧૦][૧૧][૧૩]

It was followed in 1932 by Sati Savitri, based on the epic story of Savitri and Satyavan, and in 1935 by the comedy Ghar Jamai, directed by Homi Master. Ghar Jamai starred: Heera, Jamna, Baby Nurjehan, Amoo, Alimiya, Jamshedji, and Gulam Rasool. It featured a 'resident son-in-law' and his escapades as well as his problematic attitude towards the freedom of women.[૧૦][૧૪]

Gunasundari was made three times from 1927 to 1948. The film was such a success in its first appearance in 1927, that director Chandulal Shah remade it in 1934. It was remade again in 1948 by Ratilal Punatar. Gunasundari is the story of a poor Indian woman who is disliked by her husband for her moral stand. The woman finally lands in the street where she meets a person who is just like her — a social outcast. The story ends there. However, the three versions include some changes to reflect their times.[૧૦]

There were twelve films released between 1932 and 1946. No Gujarati films were produced in 1933, 1937 or 1938. From 1941 to 1946 there was no production, due to the rationing of raw materials during World War II.[૧૦]

Post-independence (1946–1970)[ફેરફાર કરો]

After the independence of India in 1947, there was a surge in the production of Gujarati films. Twenty-six films were produced in 1948 alone. Between 1946 and 1952, seventy-four films were produced including twenty-seven films related to saint, sati or dacoit stories. These stories were designed to appeal to rural audiences familiar with such subjects. Several films produced during this period were associated with myths or folktales people were familiar with.[૧૦][૧૫]

Vishnukumar M. Vyas directed Ranakdevi (1946).[૧૬] Nirupa Roy made her debut as an actress in the film and later succeeded in the Hindi film industry playing the role of a mother in various films. Ranakdevi was the queen of Junagadh. Meerabai (1946) was a remake of the Hindi film directed by Nanubhai Bhatt starring Nirupa Roy.[૧૩][૧૭] Punatar directed Gunsundari (1948) also starring Nirupa Roy. Kariyavar (1948), directed by Chaturbhuj Doshi, introduced Dina Pathak to the film audience. Doshi also directed Vevishal (1949), an adaptation of the novel of the same name by Jhaverchand Meghani.[૧૬] Punatar's Mangalfera (1949) was a remake of the Hindi film Shadi (1941) produced by Ranjit Movietone. Other popular Gujarati films were: Vadilona Vanke (1948) directed by Ramchandra Thakur; Gada no Bel (1950) directed by Ratibhai Punatar based on the play by Prabhulal Dwivedi; and Leeludi Dharti (1968) directed by Vallabh Choksi based on the novel of same name by Chunilal Madia.[૧૦] Leeludi Dharti was the Gujarati cinema's first colour film.[૧૧] The problems of modernisation are the underlying theme of several films. Films like Gada no Bel had strong realism and a reformist theme.

Between 1951 and 1970, there was a decline in film production with only fifty-five films produced during this period. Malela Jeev (1956) was directed by Manhar Raskapur based on novel by Pannalal Patel which was scripted by the novelist himself. Raskapur and producer-actor Champshibhai Nagda produced several films including: Jogidas Khuman (1948), Kahyagaro Kanth (1950), Kanyadan (1951), Mulu Manek (1955), Malela Jeev (1956), Kadu Makrani (1960), Mehndi Rang Lagyo (1960), Jogidas Kuman (1962), Akhand Saubhagyavati (1963) and Kalapi (1966).[૧૬] Akhand Saubhagyavati was the first Gujarati film financed by the Film Finance Corporation (now the National Film Development Corporation) and starred Asha Parekh in the lead role. Kanku (1969), directed by Kantilal Rathod, was based on the short story by Pannalal Patel originally written in 1936 and later expanded into a novel in 1970. Kanku won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Gujarati at the 17th National Film Awards, and its actress Pallavi Mehta won an award at the Chicago International Film Festival.[૧૦]

Sanjeev Kumar, a popular Hindi film actor, acted in: Ramat Ramade Ram (1964), Kalapi (1966) and Jigar ane Ami (1970). Jigar ane Ami was adapted from the novel of same name by Chunilal Vardhman Shah. Vidhata (1956), Chundadi Chokha (1961), Ghar Deevdi (1961), Nandanvan (1961), Gharni Shobha (1963), Panetar (1965), Mare Jaavu Pele Paar (1968), Bahuroopi (1969) and Sansarleela (1969) were adapted from Gujarati literary works.[૧૦]

Rise and decline (1970–2000)[ફેરફાર કરો]

Mallika Sarabhai, Gujarati actress
Upendra Trivedi, one of the most successful Gujarati actors and producers.
Ketan Mehta who directed Bhavni Bhavai which won two National Awards

Following the Mahagujarat Movement, the separate linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra were formed from the Bombay State on 1 May 1960. This had a great impact on the Gujarati film industry as Bombay, the centre of film production, fell in Maharashtra. There was a lack of major film production houses and studios in Gujarat resulting in a decline in the quality and number of films.[૧૦]

In the 1970s, the Government of Gujarat announced subsidies and tax exemptions for Gujarati films resulting in spurt in film production. A studio was established in Vadodara in 1972. The state policy which benefited producers cost the state Rs 80 million in 1981-1982 for the thirty-nine films produced during that period. An entertainment tax exemption of Rs. 3,00,000 was announced for producers who completed films. This policy resulted in an influx of people interested in monetary benefits who did not have any technical or artistic knowledge, thus the quality of films declined substantially. After 1973 a large number of films were produced focused on deities and dacoits. In 1980, the tax exemption was reduced to 70% but the remaining 30% was given to producers for assistance in other ways.[૧૦][૧૮]

Gunsundarino Gharsansar (1972), directed by Govind Saraiya, won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Gujarati at the 20th National Film Awards.[૧૯] Feroze A. Sarkar directed Janamteep (1973) adapted from the novel of same name by Ishwar Petlikar. Kanti Madia adapted Vinodini Neelkanth's short story Dariyav Dil for the film Kashi no Dikro (1979). Babubhai Mistry directed a dozen films between 1969 and 1984. Dinesh Raval directed several films including: Mena Gurjari (1975), Amar Devidas (1981) and Sant Rohidas (1982). Actor-director Krishna Kant directed about a dozen Gujarati films including: Kulvadhu (1977), Gharsansar (1978) and Jog Sanjog (1980). Mehul Kumar directed several hits including: Janam Janam na Sathi (1977), Ma Vina Suno Sansar (1982), Dholamaru (1983) and Meru Malan (1985). Jesal Toral (1971) directed by Ravindra Dave was one of the biggest hits of Gujarati cinema. He also directed over twenty-five films popular with audiences. Chandrakant Sangani directed the musical film Tanariri (1975), based on the Gujarati folk-lore of Tana and Riri, which highlighted a little-known side of Akbar who is usually presented as a consistently benign ruler. He also directed Kariyavar (1977) based on the novel Vanzari Vaar by Saida. Sonbai ni Chundadi (1976), directed by Girish Manukant, was the first Gujarati cinemascope film. Mansai na Deeva (1984), directed by Govind Saraiya, was based on the novel of same name by Jhaverchand Meghani. Subhash J. Shah directed several popular films: Lohi Bhini Chundadi (1986), Prem Bandhan (1991), Oonchi Medina Ooncha Mol (1996), Parbhavni Preet (1997), and Mahisagarna Moti (1998).[૧૦]

From 1973 to 1987, Arun Bhatt produced several films matching the production values of Hindi films. He made several films with urban backgrounds such as Mota Gharni Vahu, Lohini Sagaai (1980) based on the novel by Ishwar Petlikar, Paarki Thaapan, Shetal Tara Oonda Paani (1986) which were commercially as well as critically successful. His movie Pooja na Phool, made in the early 1980s, won him an award for the Best Film from the Government of Gujarat and was also telecast on Doordarshan in the Sunday slot for regional award-winning films.[૧૦]

Bhavni Bhavai (1980), directed by Ketan Mehta, was produced by NFDC, the Sanchar Film Cooperative Society, and a district bank in Ahmedabad. Though the film was not a folk theatre form of Bhavai, it incorporated several elements of it.[૧૩] It boasted superlative performances, fine camerawork and won awards such as the National Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, the National Film Award for Best Art Direction for Meera Lakhia, and another award at the Nantes festival in France. The Parsi Gujarati film Percy (1989) directed by Pervez Merwanji won the National Award for the Best Feature Film in Gujarati at the 37th National Film Awards.[૨૦] Hun Hunshi Hunshilal (1991), directed by Sanjiv Shah, was an allegory film inspired by the political environment of the time and was felt to be post-modern. In 1998, Desh Re Joya Dada Pardesh Joya directed by Govindbhai Patel became very successful and went on to become a super-hit. The film grossed more than INR 10 crore.[૧૧][૨૧][૨૨] Vipul Amrutlal Shah produced Dariya Chhoru in 1999.[૧૦] Other commercially successful films of 1990s were Manvini Bhavai (1993), Unchi Medi Na Uncha Mol (1997) and Pandadu Lilu Ne Rang Rato (1999).[૧૪]

Upendra Trivedi was one of the most successful Gujarati actors and producers.[૧૧][૨૩] He produced Jher To Pidhan Jaani Jaani (1972) based on the epic novel of the same name by Manubhai Pancholi 'Darshak'. He also produced, acted and directed in Manvi ni Bhavai (1993) based on the novel of the same name by Pannalal Patel.[૨૪] The film was widely appreciated and went to win the National Award for the Best Feature Film in Gujarati at the 41st National Film Awards.[૨૫] Arvind Trivedi, Mahesh Kanodia, Naresh Kanodia, Rajendra Kumar, Asrani, Kiran Kumar, and Hiten Kumar had long and successful careers.[૧૧] Ramesh Mehta and P. Kharsani were popular for their comic roles. Popular Gujarati film actresses included: Mallika Sarabhai, Rita Bhaduri, Aruna Irani, Jayshree T., Bindu, Asha Parekh, and Snehlata.[૧૦]

Avinash Vyas was one of the major composers of the Gujarati cinema who wrote music for 168 Gujarati films and 61 Hindi films.[૧૧] His son Gaurang Vyas was also a composer who wrote the music for Bhavni Bhavai. Mahesh-Naresh composed the music for several Gujarati films including Tanariri.[૧૦] Another notable music composer was Ajit Merchant.

Some 368 Gujarati feature films and 3,562 Gujarati short films were produced by 1981.[૨૬] The Gujarat Film Development Corporation (GFDC) established to promotion Gujarati films was closed in 1998.[૮]

The quality of the films declined due to the focus on recovering the financial investments and profits as well as not adapting to changing times, technology and demographics. Low budget films with compromised quality targeted rural audiences while urban audiences moved to television and Bollywood films with quality content as they had a fair understanding of the Hindi language.[૧૧]

Revival (2001–present)[ફેરફાર કરો]

Fewer than twenty films a year were produced in the early 2000s.[૧૦] In 2005, the Government of Gujarat announced a 100% entertainment tax exemption and INR 5 lakh subsidy for Gujarati films.[૮][૨૭][૨૮][૨૯] There was an increase in the number of film productions after 2005 due to the tax exemption and the rise in demand for films in rural North Gujarat and especially Banaskantha district. The demand was fueled by the working class population demanding local musical and linguistic styled films which were mostly released in single screen cinemas. The number of films produced per year was over sixty in 2009 and 2010. The number of films produced reached seventy-two in 2012, the most in the history of Gujarati cinema.[૧૧] Maiyar Ma Manadu Nathi Lagtu (2001) directed by Jashwant Gangani, starring Hiten Kumar, was commercially successful. The film's sequal was released in 2008.[૩૦] Gam Ma Piyariyu Ne Gam Ma Sasariyu (2005) and Muthi Uchero Manas (2006) were commercially successful.[૧૪] Dholi Taro Dhol Vage (2008) directed by Govindbhai Patel, was produced by Reliance BIG Pictures.[૩૧] Vikram Thakore starred in several films including Ek Var Piyu Ne Malva Aavje (2006). His six films for rural audiences earned INR 3 crore. He is considered the current superstar of Gujarati cinema by various media.[૨][૧૧] Hiten Kumar, Chandon Rathod,[૧૦] Hitu Kanodia, Mamta Soni, Roma Manek and Mona Thiba are popular among rural audiences.[૩૨][૩૩][૩૪]

The Better Half (2008) directed by Ashish Kakkad was targeted for an urban audience. It failed commercially but drew the attention of critics and an urban audience. It was the first Gujarati film on super 16 mm format and the first released in multiplexes.[૧૦] Little Zizou, a 2009 film in Hindi, Gujarati, and English, written and directed by Sooni Taraporevala, won the Silver Lotus Award or Rajat Kamal in the National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare category at the 56th National Film Awards. Muratiyo No. 1 (2005) and Vanechandno Varghodo (2007), both starring Devang Patel, were big budget films but had moderate success commercially.[૨] In August 2011, the Gujarati film industry crossed the production of thousand films.[૩૫] Veer Hamirji (2012) was an historical film which was short listed for Indian representation at the Oscars.[૩૬]

Kevi Rite Jaish (2012) and Bey Yaar (2014), both directed by Abhishek Jain, became commercially and critically successful drawing an urban audience.[૩૭] Kevi Rite Jaish and Bey Yaar ran for sixteen and fifty weeks in cinemas. Both films were released worldwide.[૩૮][૩૯][૪૦] The Good Road (2013), directed by Gyan Correa, won the Best Feature Film in Gujarati at the 60th National Film Awards and later became the first Gujarati film ever selected to represent India at the Oscars.[૪૧][૪૨] The film won the Best Feature Film Jury Award at the Indian Film Festival, Houston in October 2013.[૪૩][૪૪] The success of these urban films drew new actors, directors and producers to the Gujarati film industry which had been stunted for a long time.[૩૫][૪૫][૪૬] Digital technology and social media helped the film industry by expanding its reach.[૪૭] There was a spurt in film productions targeted at urban audiences. Gujjubhai The Great starring Siddharth Randeria and Chhello Divas were commercially successful films of 2015. The box office collection of Gujarati films increased from INR 7 crore in 2014 to INR 55 crore in 2015.[૪૮][૪૯]

The INR 5 lakh subsidy by the Government of Gujarat was discontinued in August 2013. Three years later, in February 2016, a new incentive policy was announced which was focused on the quality of films. Films are graded in four categories, A to D, based on technical aspects, production quality, film components, and commercial success. The producers are provided with assistance of INR 50 lakh for A grade, INR 25 lakh for B grade, INR 10 lakh for C grade and INR 5 lakh for D grade films or 75% of production costs whichever is lower. A film can also receive additional incentives for its performance at film festivals and awards nominations/wins. The multiplexes are also directed to have at least forty-nine screenings of Gujarati films per year.[૯][૫૦][૫૧][૫૨]

As of September 2016, there are nearly 100 films in various stages of production.[૫૩] The 2016 film Wrong Side Raju won the Best Feature Film in Gujarati at the 64th National Film Awards.[૫૪]

ઈ.સ. ૧૯૩૨માં સૌ પ્રથમ ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મ નરસિંહ મહેતા આવી. આના દિગ્દર્શક નાનુભાઈ વકીલ હતા. આ ફિલ્મમાં મોહનલાલા, મારુતીરાવ, માસ્ટર મનહર અને મિસ મહેતાબ કલાકાર હતા. આ એક સંત ચરિત્ર ફિલ્મ હતી જે સંત નરસિંહ મહેતાના જીવન પર આધારિત હતી. આ ફિલ્મ અનોખી હતી કેમકે તેમાં કોઈ ચમત્કાર આદિ બતાવવામાં આવ્યાં ન હતા.

૧૯૩૫માં એક અન્ય ફિલ્મ "ઘર જમાઈ" બની જેના દિગ્દર્શક હોમી માસ્ટર હતા. આ ફિલ્મમાં હીરા, જમના, બેબી નૂરજહાં, અમૂ, અલીમિયાં, જમશેદજી અને ગુલામ રસૂલએ અભિનય કર્યો. આ ફિલ્મ ઘર જમાઈ, સ્ત્રી સ્વાતંત્ર્ય સંબંધે તેનો વિરોધ અને તેના નાસી છૂટવાના પ્રયાસો પર આધારિત એક હાસ્ય ફિલ્મ હતી. આ ફિલ્મ ખૂબ સફળ રહી હતી. ચત્રભુજ દોશી દ્વારા દિગદર્શીત 'કરિયાવર', રામચંદ્ર ઠાકુર દ્વારા દિગદર્શીત 'વડીલોના વાંકે', રતિભાઈ પુનાતર દ્વારા દિગદર્શીત 'ગાડાનો બેલ' અને વલ્લ્ભ ચોક્સી દ્વારા દિગદર્શીત 'લીલુડી ધરતી' એ ચુનીલાલ મડિયાની નવલકથા પર આધારિત હતી. આધુનિકીકરણના પરિણામે નિર્મિત તકલીફો આ ફિલ્મોમાં જોવા મળે છે. ’ગાડાનો બેલ’ જેવી ફિલ્મોમાં પરિવર્તન અને સત્યનું અસરકારક નિરૂપણ થયલું છે.

એક ફિલ્મ "ગુણસુંદરી" નો ખાસ ઉલ્લેખ થાય છે, કેમકે આ ફિલ્મ ૧૯૨૭ થી ૧૯૪૮ વચ્ચે ત્રણ વખત બની હતી. ચંદુલાલ શાહ દ્વારા ૧૯૨૭માં બનેલી તે પ્રથમ ફિલ્મ એટલી પ્રસિદ્ધ થઈ કે તેમણે ૧૯૩૪માં તેને ફરીથી બનાવી. રતિલાલ હેમચંદ પુનાતરે ફરી તેને ૧૯૪૮માં બનાવી. હિંદી ફિલ્મોની પ્રસિદ્ધ ચરિત્ર અભિનેત્રી નિરુપા રોયએ આ ફિલ્મથી પોતાની કારકિર્દી શરૂ કરી હતી.

"ગુણસુંદરી" એ એક એવી ગરીબ સ્ત્રીની કથા છે કે જેના ગુણશીલ સ્વભાવને કારણે તેનો પતિ તેને પસંદ કરતો નથી. અંતમાં તે સ્ત્રી રસ્તા પર આવી જાય છે જ્યાં તેને તેના જેવો જ, રસ્તા પર આવી ગયેલો, હારેલો એક પુરુષ મળે છે. ફિલ્મ ત્યાં પૂરી થાય છે. ત્રણે ફિલ્મો પોતાના અંતમાં જુદી પડે છે અને સમયની માગ અનુસાર તેમનો અંત બદલાયો છે.

વિષય વસ્તુના સંદર્ભે નાટકીય અને ભાવનાત્મક ફિલ્મો દર્શકોમાં પ્રિય રહેલી છે, અખંડ સૌભાગ્યવતી, જેમાં બોલીવૂડની અભિનેત્રી આશા પારેખએ અભિનય કર્યો હતો, તે ૧૯૬૩ની સફળ ફિલ્મ હતી. ગુજરાતી ટીવી. શ્રેણીઓના નિર્માણ ક્ષેત્રે આશા પારેખનું ઘણું સારું યોગદાન રહ્યું છે. ઘણા લાંબા સમય સુધી તેમની નિર્માણ કંપની 'જ્યોતિ' ઘરઘરમાં પ્રચલિત હતી.

૧૯૭૫માં બનેલી ચંદ્રકાંત સાંગાણી દ્વારા દિગ્દર્શીત ફિલ્મ 'તાનારીરી' એ અકબરના જીવનનું અન્ય પાસું પ્રગટ કરે છે જે સામાન્ય રીતે એક રાજા સ્વરૂપે દર્શાવેલું હોય છે. ૧૯૭૬ની ગિરીશ મનુકાંત 'સોનબાઈની ચૂંદડી' એ પહેલી ગુજરાતી સિનેમા સ્કોપ ફિલ્મ હતી. આ ઉપરાંત ૧૯૮૦માં નિર્મિત કેતન મહેતાની ફિલ્મ ભવની ભવાઈ નામે એક ફીલ્મ બનાવાઈ હતી. આ ફિલ્મ ઉત્કૃષ્ટ અભિનય, છાયાચિત્રણ માટે વખણાઈ હતી. આ ફિલ્મને સર્વશ્રેષ્ઠ ફિલ્મ માટેનો રાષ્ટ્રીય પુરસ્કાર અને સર્વશ્રેષ્ઠ કલા નિર્દેશન માટે મીરા લાખીયાને પુરસ્કાર મળ્યો. આ સિવાય તેને ફ્રાંસના નેન્ટ્સ ફેસ્ટીવલમાં ઈનામ મળ્યું હતું. ૧૯૯૨ની સંજીવ શાહ દિગ્દર્શીત ફિલ્મ 'હું હુંશી હુંશીલાલ' એક અર્વાચીન ફિલ્મ હતી.

વિષયો[ફેરફાર કરો]

ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મો મોટે ભાગે માનવીય કે સામાજિક ભાવનાઓ દ્વારા વણાયેલી હોય છે. આમાં પારિવારિક સંબંધો, માનવ્ચ મનની ઈચ્છાઓ અને સમાજ જીવન સંબંધી વિષયવસ્તુ હોય છે.

કલાકારો[ફેરફાર કરો]

મલ્લિકા સારાભાઈ

ઘણા પ્રસિદ્ધ કલાકારોએ ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મોમાં કામ કર્યું છે. જેમકે, સંજીવ કુમાર, રાજેંદ્ર કુમાર, બિંદુ, આશા પારેખ, કિરણકુમાર, રીટા ભાદુરી, ઉપેન્દ્ર ત્રિવેદી, અરવિંદ ત્રિવેદી, અરુણા ઈરાની, મલ્લિકા સારાભાઈ, અસરાની, નરેશ કનોડિયા, સ્નેહલતા, જયશ્રી ટી., હીતેન કુમાર વગેરે.

ગુજરાતી સિનેમાના ખેલ સમય

સુવર્ણ કાળ[ફેરફાર કરો]

૧૯૬૫ થી ૧૯૯૦નો કાળ ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મોનો સૂવર્ણ કાળ હતો.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

રાષ્ટ્રીય પુરસ્કાર[ફેરફાર કરો]

'ભવની ભવાઈ' એ ૧૯૮૦માં પ્રસિદ્ધ થયેલી ફિલ્મ કેતન મહેતા દ્વારા દિગદર્શિત હતી. આ ફિલ્મ ઉત્કૃષ્ટ અભિનય, છાયાચિત્રણ માટે વખણાઈ હતી. આ ફિલ્મને સર્વશ્રેષ્ઠ ફિલ્મ માટેનો રાષ્ટ્રીય પુરસ્કાર અને સર્વશ્રેષ્ઠ કલા નિર્દેશન માટે મીરા લાખીયાને પુરસ્કાર મળ્યો. આ સિવાય તેને ફ્રાંસના નેન્ટ્સ ફેસ્ટીવલમાં ઈનામ મળ્યું હતું. ૨૦૦૯માં "લીટલ ઝીઝો", નામની હિંદી, ગુજરાતી અને અંગ્રેજી ભાષામાં બનેલી ફિલ્મ, જેનું દિગદર્શન સૂની તારાપોરવાલાએ કર્યું હતું, તેને પરિવાર કલ્યાણ માટેનો રાષ્ટ્રીય પુરસ્કાર ’રજત કમળ’ મળ્યો હતો.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

અન્ય માહિતી[ફેરફાર કરો]

અત્યાર સુધી ૭૬૨ જેટલી ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મો બની છે.(સંદર્ભ આપો) ૮૦ થી ૧૦૦ દ્રશ્યોની હિંદી ફિલ્મ માટે ૫૦૦૦ થી ૮૦૦૦ શૉટ લેવાય છે જ્યારે ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મો ૫૦૦ થી ૮૦૦ શૉટ લે છે, કેમકે ફિલ્મના બજેટ અનુસાર એટલા શૉટ લેવાનું તેમને પાલવે નહીં. હાલમાં સરકારે ગુજરાતી ફિલ્મોને ૧૦૦% કર મુક્તિ આપી છે. સિનેમાગૃહને ૧ રૂ. નો વધારાનો સર્વિસ ચાર્જ પણ મળશે.(સંદર્ભ આપો)

સંદર્ભ[ફેરફાર કરો]

  1. "Gujarati film industry says no to Dhollywood". 
  2. ૨.૦ ૨.૧ ૨.૨ "Golly! Gujarati films cross 1k mark". The Times of India. ૨૦૧૧-૦૭-૨૯. Retrieved ૨૦૧૫-૦૭-૧૫. 
  3. "NEWS: Limping at 75". Screen (magazine). ૪ મે ૨૦૦૭. 
  4. "‘Dhollywood’ at 75 finds few takers in urban Gujarat". Financial Express. ૨૨ એપ્રિલ ૨૦૦૭. 
  5. "NEWS: Limping at 75". Screen (magazine). મે ૦૪, ૨૦૦૭. 
  6. "‘Dhollywood’ at 75 finds few takers in urban Gujarat". Financial Express. ૨૨ એપ્રિલ ૨૦૦૭. 
  7. "As studios pack up, govt offers sop: Tax exemption for Gujarati films". Indian Express. મે ૦૨, ૨૦૦૫. 
  8. ૮.૦ ૮.૧ ૮.૨ Roy, Mithun (3 May 2005). "Crisis-hit Gujarati film industry gets 100% tax rebate". Business Standard News. Retrieved ૧૩ જુલાઇ ૨૦૧૫.  Check date values in: 3 May 2005 (help)
  9. ૯.૦ ૯.૧ "Gujarat govt announces new policy for incentives to Gujarati films". DeshGujarat. ૨ ફેબ્રુઆરી ૨૦૧૬. Retrieved ૪ ફેબ્રુઆરી ૨૦૧૬. 
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